Controversy persists pertaining to the role of CCR4 ligands, namely CCL17 (or thymus and activation regulated chemokine; TARC) and CCL22 (or macrophage-derived chemokine; MDC), in Th2-type cytokine-dominated responses in the lung. Accordingly, the present study addressed the relative role of each of these CC chemokines during an evolving pulmonary granulomatous response elicited by the intrapulmonary embolization of live Schistosoma mansoni eggs into S. mansoni-sensitized mice. CCL22 protein expression peaked at day 4, but CCL17 levels were not increased significantly at any time after egg challenge. CCR4 transcript and protein expression were highest at day 8 after egg embolization and CCR4 protein was prominently expressed in macrophages surrounding S. mansoni eggs. Systemic immunoneutralization of CCL22 from the time of egg injection into S. mansoni-sensitized mice for 8 days significantly decreased CCR4 protein expression, the eosinophil content, the overall size of the egg granuloma, and its hydroxyproline content. Whole lung levels of interferon-γ were also significantly increased at day 8 in anti-CCL22-treated mice. The systemic immunoneutralization of CCL17 had a lesser effect on all of the granuloma parameters listed above, but this antibody treatment significantly decreased granuloma hydroxyproline content to a greater extent than the anti-CCL22 antibody treatment. In addition, the immunoneutralization of CCL17 significantly increased whole lung levels of interleukin (IL)-4, IL-5, IL-13, transforming growth factor-β, IL-12, and tumor necrosis factor-α at day 8 after egg infusion. Thus, these studies demonstrate a major role for CCL22 and a lesser role for CCL17 during an evolving S. mansoni egg granuloma in the lung.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pathology and Forensic Medicine