Risk factors and outcomes of pediatric extracorporeal membrane oxygenation

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Abstract

Background: Congenital heart disease (CHD) is the most common neonatal and pediatric cardiac indication for extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). Risk factors of survival and neurologic complication were different in many centers. We sought to evaluate survival and neurological outcome after ECMO in patients with CHD. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 37 patients (<16 years old) who received ECMO. Indications for ECMO were failure to wean from cardiopulmonary bypass in 18 patients, extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation (ECPR) in 13 patients, and others in 6 patients. The median cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) duration in ECPR patients was 48 min (interquartile range: 38–53 min). Neurological outcomes were evaluated using the Pediatric Cerebral Performance Category (PCPC) scale one year after hospital discharge. Results: The median ECMO duration was 160 (91–286) h. Twenty-nine patients (78%) were successfully weaned off ECMO. Overall survival to hospital discharge was 59%. Risk factors of mortality were as follows: ECMO duration >1 week and urine output <1 mL/kg/h in the first 24 h after ECMO induction by multivariable analysis. Of the 22 survivors, 15 (68%) patients had a favorable outcome (PCPC ≤2). Risk factors for unfavorable outcomes (PCPC ≥3) included ECPR as indication and CPR of longer than 40 min. Conclusions: Longer ECMO duration and lower urine output were associated with increased mortality. Neurologic outcomes were not satisfactory when CPR was required for a longer period before ECMO establishment.

Original languageEnglish
JournalAsian Cardiovascular and Thoracic Annals
DOIs
Publication statusAccepted/In press - 2021

Keywords

  • congenital heart disease
  • Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation
  • neurologic outcome
  • Pediatric Cerebral Performance Category

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery
  • Pulmonary and Respiratory Medicine
  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine

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