The anatomical variations of the maxillary sinus septa, greater palatine artery, and posterior superior alveolar arteries might cause unexpected complications when they are damaged. Dentists who know these structures well might hope to learn more practical knowledge to avoid and assess injury preoperatively. Therefore, this review paper aimed to review the reported anatomy and variations of the maxillary sinus septa, greater palatine artery/nerve, and posterior superior alveolar artery, and to discuss what has to be assessed preoperatively to avoid iatrogenic injury. To assess the risk of injury of surgically significant anatomical structures in the maxillary sinus and hard palate, the operator should have preoperative three-dimensional images in their mind based on anatomical knowledge and palpation. Additionally, knowledge of the average measurement results from previous studies is important.
- Dental implants
- Greater palatine foramen
- Maxillary sinus
- Maxillary sinus augmentation
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pathology and Forensic Medicine
- Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging