Background: Patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) are currently treated with combination therapy of PAH-targeted drugs. Reverse right ventricular (RV) remodeling after lung transplantation (LTx) in patients with end-stage PAH despite combination therapy of PAH-targeted drugs has not been fully elucidated. Methods and Results: A total of 136 patients, including 32 with PAH, underwent LTx from 1998 to 2014. We enrolled 12 consecutive patients with PAH treated with combination therapy of PAH-targeted drugs who underwent LTx and retrospectively analyzed the temporal and serial changes in hemodynamics and echocardiography before LTx and at 3 and 12 months after LTx. Before LTx, the RV was markedly dilated with substantially reduced RV fractional area change (RVFAC). At 3 months after LTx, pulmonary artery pressure, pulmonary vascular resistance and RV stroke work index were significantly decreased, while left ventricular stroke work index was increased. RV size assessed by echocardiography also significantly decreased and RVFAC improved. At 12 months after LTx, RVFAC was further increased and RV wall thickness was decreased significantly. Conclusions: Although severe RV dysfunction and dilation were observed in patients with end-stage PAH despite combination therapy of PAH-targeted drugs, RV function and morphology were improved after reduction of RV pressure load by LTx.
- Lung transplantation
- Pulmonary arterial hypertension
- Right ventricular function
- Right ventricular reverse remodeling
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine