Retrotransposon long interspersed nucleotide element-1 (LINE-1) is activated during salamander limb regeneration

Wei Zhu, Dwight Kuo, Jason Nathanson, Akira Satoh, Gerald M. Pao, Gene W. Yeo, Susan V. Bryant, S. Randal Voss, David M. Gardiner, Tony Hunter

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

21 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Salamanders possess an extraordinary capacity for tissue and organ regeneration when compared to mammals. In our effort to characterize the unique transcriptional fingerprint emerging during the early phase of salamander limb regeneration, we identified transcriptional activation of some germline-specific genes within the Mexican axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum) that is indicative of cellular reprogramming of differentiated cells into a germline-like state. In this work, we focus on one of these genes, the long interspersed nucleotide element-1 (LINE-1) retrotransposon, which is usually active in germ cells and silent in most of the somatic tissues in other organisms. LINE-1 was found to be dramatically upregulated during regeneration. In addition, higher genomic LINE-1 content was also detected in the limb regenerate when compared to that before amputation indicating that LINE-1 retrotransposition is indeed active during regeneration. Active LINE-1 retrotransposition has been suggested to have a potentially deleterious impact on genomic integrity. Silencing of activated LINE-1 by small RNAs has been reported to be part of the machinery aiming to maintain genomic integrity. Indeed, we were able to identify putative LINE-1-related piRNAs in the limb blastema. Transposable element-related piRNAs have been identified frequently in the germline in other organisms. Thus, we present here a scenario in which a unique germline-like state is established during axolotl limb regeneration, and the re-activation of LINE-1 may serve as a marker for cellular dedifferentiation in the early-stage of limb regeneration.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)673-685
Number of pages13
JournalDevelopment Growth and Differentiation
Volume54
Issue number7
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Sep 1 2012

Keywords

  • Limb
  • Long interspaced nucleotide element-1
  • PiRNAs
  • Regeneration
  • Salamander

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Developmental Biology
  • Cell Biology

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    Zhu, W., Kuo, D., Nathanson, J., Satoh, A., Pao, G. M., Yeo, G. W., Bryant, S. V., Voss, S. R., Gardiner, D. M., & Hunter, T. (2012). Retrotransposon long interspersed nucleotide element-1 (LINE-1) is activated during salamander limb regeneration. Development Growth and Differentiation, 54(7), 673-685. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1440-169X.2012.01368.x