Retroperitoneal leiomyosarcoma in a female patient with a germline splicing variant RAD51D c.904-2A > T: a case report

Mashu Futagawa, Hideki Yamamoto, Mariko Kochi, Yusaku Urakawa, Reimi Sogawa, Fumino Kato, Mika Okazawa-Sakai, Daisuke Ennishi, Katsunori Shinozaki, Hirofumi Inoue, Hiroyuki Yanai, Akira Hirasawa

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Abstract

Background: RAD51D (RAD51 paralog D) is an intermediate cancer susceptibility gene for primary ovarian cancer, including fallopian tube and peritoneal carcinomas and breast cancer. Although gynecological non-epithelial tumors such as uterine sarcomas are associated with genomic instability, including BRCA impairment, there is no clear evidence of the relationship between RAD51D variants and the risk of sarcoma development. Case presentation: A Japanese woman in her 50s underwent multiple surgical resections and several regimens of chemotherapy for tumors that originated in the retroperitoneum and recurred in the peritoneum over a clinical course of approximately 4 years. The peritoneal tumor was histologically diagnosed as a leiomyosarcoma and was genetically identified to show a splice variant of RAD51D c.904-2A > T [NM_002878] through tumor profiling performed as a part of cancer precision medicine. The confirmatory genetic test performed after genetic counseling revealed that the RAD51D splicing variant detected in her tumor was of germline origin. In silico analyses supported the possible pathogenicity of the detected splice variant of RAD51D with a predicted attenuation in mRNA transcription and truncated protein production due to frameshifting, which was attributed to a single-nucleotide alteration in the splicing acceptor site at the 3′-end of intron 9 of RAD51D. Considering her unfavorable clinical outcome, which showed a highly aggressive phenotype of leiomyosarcoma with altered RAD51D, this case provided novel evidence for the relationship of a RAD51D splicing variant with malignant tumor development or progression. We report the findings of this rare case with possible involvement of the germline variant of RAD51D c.904-2A > T as a potential predisposing factor for malignant tumors, including leiomyosarcoma. Conclusions: We present the findings of a case of leiomyosarcoma in the peritoneum of a female patient with a novel germline splicing variant of RAD51D as potential evidence for the pathogenicity of the variant and its involvement in the risk of sarcoma etiology and/or development. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report describing a leiomyosarcoma carrying a germline RAD51D splicing variant and elucidating its pathogenicity on the basis of computational prediction of the impairment of normal transcription and the presumed loss of functional protein production.

Original languageEnglish
Article number48
JournalHereditary Cancer in Clinical Practice
Volume19
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2021

Keywords

  • Cancer susceptibility
  • Homologous recombination (HR)
  • Leiomyosarcoma
  • Presumed germline pathogenic variant (PGPV)
  • RAD51D
  • Splice variant

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Oncology
  • Genetics(clinical)

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