5-Hydroxyuracil (HOU) and 5-hydroxycytosine (HOC) are major oxidative lesions of cytosine with mutagenic potentials. Therefore, HOU and HOC need to be removed from DNA to avoid mutation. In this study, oligonucleotide substrates containing HOU and HOC were synthesized by DNA polymerase reactions and tested for DNA glycosylases. Ung exhibited an extremely low activity for HOU as compared to uracil (U). In contrast, hSMUG1 excised HOU and U with a comparable efficiency. Ung and hSMUG1 did not excise HOC.