Background. Renal-specific oxidoreductase (RSOR) has been recently identified in mice kidneys of diabetic animals, and it is developmentally regulated. Its expression during fetal, neonatal, and postnatal periods was assessed under high glucose ambience. Methods. Whole-mount immunofluorescence and confocal microscopy were performed to assess the effect of high glucose on the morphogenesis of mice fetal kidneys. RSOR mRNA and protein expression was assessed by competitive polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and immunoprecipitation methods in embryonic kidneys (day E13 to E17) subjected to high glucose ambience and by Northern and Western blot analyses of kidneys of newborn and 1-week-old mice with hyperglycemia. The spatiotemporal changes in the RSOR expression were assessed by in situ hybridization analyses and immunofluorescence microscopy. In addition, the extent of apoptosis in the kidneys was determined by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT)-mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate (dUTP) nick-end labeling (TUNEL) assay. Results. Whole-mount microscopy of the embryonic metanephroi revealed a dose-dependent disruption in the ureteric bud iterations with reduced population of the nascent nephrons. Both gene and protein expressions were reduced in day E13 to E17 metanephroi, while increased in kidneys of newborn and 1-week-old mice. In day E13 and day E15 kidneys, the RSOR was expressed in the ureteric bud branches and some of the immature tubules, and its expression was reduced with high glucose treatment. In day E17 kidneys the RSOR was expressed in the tubules of the deeper cortex, and its expression was marginally decreased. In newborn kidneys, this enzyme was expressed in the subcortical tubules and it spread to the entire width of the renal cortex in hyperglycemic state. In 1-week-old mice kidneys, the RSOR was localized to the entire cortex, and in animals with blood glucose above 300 mg/dL, its intensity increased with extension of expression into the outer medullary tubules. A dose-dependent fulminant apoptosis was observed in day E13 to E17 kidneys subjected to high glucose ambience. In newborn and 1-week-old mice control kidneys, the apoptosis was minimal although slightly increased during hyperglycemia. Conclusion. High glucose has a differential effect on the RSOR expression in kidneys during the embryonic versus neonatal/postnatal period. This may partly be related to the differential degree of apoptosis, a process reflective of oxidant stress that is seen in diabetic milieu, which as previously has been shown to adversely effect the modulators of fetal development and thereby the morphogenesis of the kidney and RSOR expression.
- Diabetic nephropathy
- Renal development
- Renal specific oxidoreductase
ASJC Scopus subject areas