Microfluidic paper-based analytical devices (μ-PADs) fabricated in Japan were employed for the determination of total chromium (Cr) in water, soil, and lettuce irrigated with wastewater in Ethiopia. The μ-PADs, which were printed by wax printing in Japan, were transported to Ethiopia and prepared for the determination of total Cr by adding appropriate reagents to the pretreatment and detection zones. Soil and lettuce samples were determined by the μ-PADs and a UV-Vis spectrophotometer in Ethiopia. A paired t-test showed that the mean total Cr concentrations determined in the soil and lettuce samples were not significantly different between μ-PADs and UV-Vis spectrophotometric analysis at the 5% level of significance. This implies that the μ-PADs have good accuracy and reliability, and could be employed to monitor Cr in environmental samples. We found that the total Cr concentrations in all soil and lettuce samples were above the permissible limit. Moreover, evaluating Cr contamination level using the geo-accumulation index indicated that the soils were contaminated with Cr moderately to heavily. Thus, the present work successfully demonstrated the potential of remote investigations of pollution in a less-equipped laboratory by transporting the μ-PADs fabricated in another laboratory.
- Microfluidic paper-based analytical device
- industrial effluent
- total chromium
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Analytical Chemistry