Fluctuating asymmetry (FA) is defined as small, random deviations from perfect bilateral symmetry in a morphological trait. It has sometimes been used as an indicator of male quality because it affects male mating success. In the Japanese scorpionfly, Panorpa japonica, males are known to use two mating tactics, donation of nuptial gifts and forced mating. In P. japonica, low FA males are more likely to win a competition with another male, and females prefer low FA male sex pheromones. However, no studies have been conducted on the effect of FA on the mating tactics adopted by males. In the present study, we first observed the mating behaviors of P. japonica and classified these into three patterns: (1) nuptial gifting, (2) forced mating, and (3) feeding mating. Second, we investigated the relationships between mating tactics and male traits, including body size, FA, and weapon size. The results showed a positive correlation between absolute FA and mating duration only in the case of feeding mating. We discuss the reasons why this significant correlation was found in P. japonica.
- Mating duration
- Panorpa japonica
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
- Animal Science and Zoology