The reduced expression in immortalized cells (REIC)/Dickkopf (Dkk)-3, a member of the Dkk gene family, is a tumor suppressor in a broad range of cancers. REIC/Dkk-3 transfected stable clones of mouse prostate cancer RM9 cells (RM9-REIC) and the empty vector-transfected control clone cells (RM9-EV) were established. Clones were used to evaluate the anti-cancer effects and a proteomics analysis of REIC/Dkk-3 continuous expression was performed. The RM9-REIC cells show a feeble appearance and the cell membrane shows irregular buds known as blebs. In vitro cell proliferation was significantly suppressed in RM9-REIC clones in comparison to the control. The apoptosis assay was done under standard culture conditions and RM9-REIC showed a higher incidence of apoptosis. The RM9-EV and RM9-REIC cells were orthotopically implanted into a C57BL/ 6 mouse prostate. After 2 weeks, the tumor growth was significantly inhibited in RM9-REIC cells in comparison to the control. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis was used to examine the modification of protein expression by the gene transfection. The analysis with mass spectrometry disclosed that expression of peroxiredoxin-1, GST-P1, transgelin-2, MRP-L12, ARD, GRP78 and Sorcin were increased and eEF1A-1 and cyclophilin-40 protein were decreased in RM9-REIC cells. Therefore, REIC/Dkk-3 stable transfectants show a reduction of malignancy in mouse prostate cancer RM9 cells in vitro and in vivo. The result of the proteomics analysis might provide important clues to clarify the anti-cancer molecular mechanism of REIC/Dkk-3 gene transfer.
- Malignant phenotype
- Prostate cancer
- Reduced expression in immortalized cells
- Two-dimensional gelelectrophoresis
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