The effects of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) on systemic chronic active Epstein–Barr virus infection (sCAEBV) are yet to be analyzed in a large number of patients. Using the Japanese registry database, Transplant Registry Unification Management Program, we investigated the outcomes of 102 sCAEBV patients who underwent allo-HSCT. The median age at HSCT was 21 years, and the three-year overall survival (3-year OS) rate was 72.5%. Of the 90 patients whose viral load after allo-HSCT was evaluated, 56 (62.2%) achieved a virological complete response, defined by the complete resolution of disease activity with a significant decrease in EBV-DNA in peripheral blood. The multivariate Cox proportional hazard model indicated that advanced age, in adolescents and young adults (AYA) (age, 15–39) and adults (age, ≥40 years) was a risk factor of poor OS. The hazard ratios (HRs) of the AYA and adult groups were 10.87 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.98–59.56, p =.006) and 15.93 (95% CI: 2.45–103.8, p =.004), respectively. Disease activity (HR 5.74), elevated soluble IL-2 receptor (sIL-2R) (≥ median, 691 U/mL) at HSCT (HR 6.93), and conditioning without radiotherapy (HR 3.53) were also independently associated with poor survival. Notably, 79% of radiotherapy doses were less than 6 Gy. Regardless of the presence of hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis, the group with a high sIL-2R level (≥2000 U/mL) showed a poorer prognosis. Although allo-HSCT is the only curative therapy for sCAEBV, treatment strategies need to be improved for high-risk patients, especially those with high levels of sIL-2R.
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