Reactive oxygen species and antioxidative defense in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

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18 Citations (Scopus)


The respiratory system is continuously exposed to endogenous and exogenous oxidants. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterized by chronic inflammation of the air-ways, leading to the destruction of lung parenchyma (emphysema) and declining pulmonary function. It is increasingly obvious that reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) contribute to the progression and amplification of the inflammatory responses related to this disease. First, we described the association between cigarette smoking, the most representative exogenous oxidant, and COPD and then presented the multiple pathophysiological aspects of ROS and antioxidative defense systems in the development and progression of COPD. Second, the relationship between nitric oxide system (endothelial) dysfunction and oxidative stress has been dis-cussed. Third, we have provided data on the use of these biomarkers in the pathogenetic mechanisms involved in COPD and its progression and presented an overview of oxidative stress biomarkers having clinical applications in respiratory medicine, including those in exhaled breath, as per recent observations. Finally, we explained the findings of recent clinical and experimental studies evaluating the efficacy of antioxidative interventions for COPD. Future breakthroughs in anti-oxidative therapy may provide a promising therapeutic strategy for the prevention and treatment of COPD.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1537
Issue number10
Publication statusPublished - Oct 2021


  • Antioxidant
  • Arginine
  • Asymmetric dimethylarginine
  • Biomarker
  • Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
  • Cigarette smoke
  • Nitric oxide
  • Oxidant
  • Oxidative stress
  • Reactive oxygen species

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry
  • Physiology
  • Molecular Biology
  • Clinical Biochemistry
  • Cell Biology


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