Re-Evaluation of Initial Bone Mineralization from an Engineering Perspective

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

Abstract

Bone regeneration was one of the earliest fields to develop in the context of tissue regeneration, and currently, repair of small-sized bone defects has reached a high success rate. Future researches are expected to incorporate more advanced techniques toward achieving rapid bone repair and modulation of the regenerated bone quality. For these purposes, it is important to have a more integrative understanding of the mechanisms of bone formation and maturation from multiple perspectives and to incorporate these new concepts into the development and designing of novel materials and techniques for bone regeneration. This review focuses on the analysis of the earliest stages of bone tissue development from the biology, material science, and engineering perspectives for a more integrative understanding of bone formation and maturation, and for the development of novel biology-based engineering approaches for tissue synthesis in vitro. More specifically, the authors describe the systematic methodology that allowed the understanding of the different nucleation sites in intramembranous and endochondral ossification, the space-making process for mineral formation and growth, as well as the process of apatite crystal cluster growth in vivo in the presence of suppressing biomolecules. A detailed understanding of the developmental process of bone tissue leads to the acquisition of useful information for the bone tissue fabrication. This review summarizes the study of the calcification process of the calvaria and epiphyses from an engineering perspective and provides useful information for the realization of bone tissue biofabrication. Here, we describe the new mechanism of space formation for mineralization such as rupture of chondrocytes and disruption of cell-cell adhesion. We also describe the roles of nucleation site such as cell membrane nanofragments and matrix vesicles.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)246-255
Number of pages10
JournalTissue Engineering - Part B: Reviews
Volume28
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Feb 2022
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • biomineralization
  • cellular nanofragment
  • microenvironment
  • ossification

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Bioengineering
  • Biomaterials
  • Biochemistry
  • Biomedical Engineering

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