Unidirectional porous hydroxyapatite (UDPHAp) was developed as an excellent scaffold with unidirectional pores oriented in the horizontal direction with interpore connections. The purpose of this study was to assess radiographic changes and clinical outcomes and complications following UDPHAp implantation to treat benign bone tumors. We retrospectively analyzed 44 patients treated with intralesional resection and UDPHAp implantation for benign bone tumors between 2010 and 2015. Clinical and radiographic findings were evaluated postoperatively at regular follow-up visits. The mean follow-up was 49 months. Radiographic changes were classified into five stages based on bone formation in the implanted UDPHAp according to Tamai’s classification. All patients showed excellent bone formation inside and around implanted UDPHAp. Absorption of UDPHAp and bone marrow cavity remodeling was identified in 20 patients at a mean of 17 months postoperatively, and was significantly more common in young patients. Preoperative cortical thinning was completely regenerated in 26 of 31 patients on average 10 months after surgery. There were no cases of delayed wound healing, postoperative infection, or allergic reaction related to implanted UDPHAp. UDPHAp is a useful bone-filling substitute for treating benign bone tumor, and the use of this material has a low complication rate.
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