Two chemoattractants for human monocytes were purified to apparent homogeneity from the culture supernatant of a glioma cell line (U-105MG) by sequential chromatography on Orange A-Sepharose, an HPLC cation exchanger, and a reverse phase HPLC column. On SDS-PAGE gels under reducing or nonreducing conditions, the molecular masses of the two peptides glioma-derived chemotactic factor 1 and 2 were 15 and 13 kD, respectively. Amino acid composition of these molecules was almost identical, and differed from other cytokines that have been reported. The NH2 terminus of each peptide was apparently blocked. When tested for chemotactic efficacy, the peptides attracted ~30% of the monocytes added to chemotaxis chambers, at the optimal concentration of 10-9 M. Potency and efficacy were comparable with that of FMLP, which is often used as a reference attractant. The activity was chemotactic rather than chemokinetic. In contrast to their interaction with human monocytes, the pure peptides did not attract neutrophils. These pure tumor-derived chemoattractants can now be compared with attractants produced by normal cells and evaluated for their biological significance in human neoplastic disease.
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