The combination of CDK4/6 inhibitors with antiestrogen therapies signifi cantly improves clinical outcomes in ER-positive advanced breast cancer. To identify mechanisms of acquired resistance, we analyzed serial biopsies and rapid autopsies from patients treated with the combination of the CDK4/6 inhibitor ribociclib with letrozole. This study revealed that some resistant tumors acquired RB loss, whereas other tumors lost PTEN expression at the time of progression. In breast cancer cells, ablation of PTEN, through increased AKT activation, was suffi cient to promote resistance to CDK4/6 inhibition in vitro and in vivo. Mechanistically, PTEN loss resulted in exclusion of p27 from the nucleus, leading to increased activation of both CDK4 and CDK2. Because PTEN loss also causes resistance to PI3Kα inhibitors, currently approved in the post-CDK4/6 setting these findings provide critical insight into how this single genetic event may cause clinical cross-resistance to multiple targeted therapies in the same patient, with implications for optimal treatmentsequencing strategies. SIGNIFICANCE: Our analysis of serial biopsies uncovered RB and PTEN loss as mechanisms of acquired resistance to CDK4/6 inhibitors, utilized as fi rst-line treatment for ER-positive advanced breast cancer. Importantly, these fi ndings have near-term clinical relevance because PTEN loss also limits the effi cacy of PI3Kα inhibitors currently approved in the post-CDK4/6 setting.
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