Pseudouridine, an antimutagenic substance in beer towards N-methyl-N′-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG)

T. Yoshikawa, S. Kimura, Tsutomu Hatano, Keinosuke Okamoto, H. Hayatsu, S. Arimoto-Kobayashi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

25 Citations (Scopus)


Previously we reported that beer is antimutagenic against several food-derived mutagens including heterocyclic amines. We describe here the isolation and identification of pseudouridine from beer as an antimutagenic substance against N-methyl-N′-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG). All of the 17 samples of beer tested showed inhibition of the MNNG mutagenicity in Salmonella. Extensive fractionation through chromatography of the active components from a freeze-dried beer sample gave six antimutagenic fractions. One contained pseudouridine, as characterized by the UV spectra, nuclear magnetic resonance, and co-chromatography in HPLC. Pure pseudouridine inhibited the mutagenicity of MNNG in a dose-dependent manner. The amount of pseudouridine in the beer sample, estimated at about 0.4 mg/100 ml beer, can account for 3% of the total antimutagenicity of beer. Thus, the major active components in beer remain to be identified. The role of pseudouridine in inhibiting the mutagenicity of MNNG is to be studied further. Among analogs of pseudouridine, spongouridine, but not uridine, was antimutagenic against MNNG. The bacterial mutagenicity of another methylating agent N-methyl-N-nitrosourea was also inhibited by pseudouridine. Pseudouridine is the first example among nucleosides to be shown to possess an antimutagenic property.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1165-1170
Number of pages6
JournalFood and Chemical Toxicology
Issue number8
Publication statusPublished - 2002


  • Alkylating agents
  • Antimutagen
  • Beer
  • Pseudouridine
  • Spongouridine

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Food Science
  • Toxicology


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