To identify the proteomic alterations associated with carcinogenesis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), we compared the protein expression profiles of nine HCC cell lines with those of primary cultured hepatocytes established from five individuals. A differential proteomic study was performed by two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis, in which protein samples are labeled with different fluorescent dyes and separated according to their isoelectric point and molecular weight. To label the protein samples, we used a newly developed and highly sensitive fluorescent dye, which reacts with all reduced cysteine residues of proteins. Principal component analysis based on the intensity of 1238 protein spots indicated that the HCC cells and the normal hepatocytes had distinct proteomic profiles. The Wilcoxon test was used to determine the protein spots whose intensity was differentially regulated in the HCC cells compared with the normal hepatocytes, and mass spectrometric analysis was used to identify the proteins corresponding to the spots. The proteins identified are involved in cell cycle regulation, binding to a tumor-suppressor gene product, fatty acid binding, and regulation of translation. Western blotting with specific antibodies revealed the overexpression of PCNA, EB1 and E-FABP in HCC tissues compared with noncancerous tissues. Aberrant regulation of EB1 and E-FABP has not previously been implicated in the development of HCC.
- Hepatocellular carcinoma
- Saturation cysteine dye
- Two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Molecular Biology