Purpose: Single immediate intravesical instillation of chemotherapy after transurethral resection of bladder tumor (TURBT) has been the gold standard treatment for patients with low- and intermediate-risk non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC). Herein, we conducted a multicenter prospective randomized controlled trial in Japan, comparing recurrence-free survival between single and two-time instillation of pirarubicin (THP) for solitary NMIBC. Methods: Between 2005 and 2009, 257 patients with solitary NMIBC were enrolled and randomized to single instillation of THP (30 mg/50 mL) immediately after TURBT (Group A) or two-time instillation of THP immediately after and 1 day after TURBT (Group B). The primary endpoint was recurrence-free survival. Secondary endpoints included rates of recurrence and adverse effects, including hematuria, micturition pain, difficult urination, pollakiuria, systemic symptoms, and other complications. This study was registered as UMIN C000000266. Results: Of 257 patients, 99 in Group A and 102 in Group B could be evaluated for recurrence. Median follow-up was 71 months. The overall recurrence rate was 39 and 31%, respectively (p = 0.2704). Although the 5-year recurrence-free survival rates were 55.9% and 67.7% in groups A and B, respectively, the difference between groups was not significant (p = 0.2031). No significant differences in adverse effects were observed between groups, except for pollakiuria (7 vs 22%, p = 0.0031). Multivariate analyses did not show that the treatment group was a significant risk factor for bladder cancer recurrence. Conclusions: Postoperative two-time intravesical instillation of THP was not superior to single immediate instillation for preventing recurrence after complete resection of a solitary NMIBC.
- Intravesical chemotherapy
- Non muscle invasive bladder cancer
- Randomized controlled trial
- Recurrence free survival
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