Properties and actions of heat-stable enterotoxin of Escherichia coli

Keinosuke Okamoto, H. Yamanaka

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

2 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The heat-stable enterotoxins (STs) produced by enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli are classified into two groups, methanol-soluble (STI) and methanol-insoluble (STII) enterotoxins. These are distinct toxins with unique properties. Their features in common include heat-stability, low molecular weight, secretion from the bacteria, and ability to induce fluid secretion from the intestine. STI is an 18- or 19-amino acid extracellular peptide with three intramolecular disulfide bonds, which is produced by proteolytic cleavage of 72 amino acid precursor. The STI in the lumen of the intestine binds to specific protein receptors (guanylate cyclase C) located in the brush border membrane and leads to elevation of intracellular cyclic GMP level. Several factors involved in the activation of guanylate cyclase by STI have been identified. Elevation of cyclic GMP level induces intestinal fluid secretion by stimulation of chloride secretion. Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator, which is a chloride channel, might be involved in chloride secretion. In contrast, STII is a 48-amino acid peptide with two intramolecular disulfide bonds, which results from 71 amino acid precursor. Compared with STI, the steps that lead to intestinal fluid secretion by STII are not well established. It has been proposed that sulfatide in the brush border is a receptor for STII and that the STII bound to the receptor opens GTP-binding regulatory protein-linked calcium channels. These actions of STII induce not only stimulation of the production of secretagogues such as prostaglandin E2 and serotonin, but also activation of the calcium-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II in the cells.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)213-229
Number of pages17
JournalJournal of Natural Toxins
Volume9
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 2000
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Enterotoxins
Sexually Transmitted Diseases
Escherichia coli
Methanol
methanol
secretion
Hot Temperature
amino acid
Fluids and Secretions
Amino Acids
Guanylate Cyclase
Cyclic GMP
chloride
Brushes
Intestinal Secretions
Disulfides
peptide
protein
Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase Type 2
Fluids

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Toxicology
  • Environmental Science(all)

Cite this

Properties and actions of heat-stable enterotoxin of Escherichia coli. / Okamoto, Keinosuke; Yamanaka, H.

In: Journal of Natural Toxins, Vol. 9, No. 3, 2000, p. 213-229.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

@article{b37b6b217ca346e580f4dbc4cad73139,
title = "Properties and actions of heat-stable enterotoxin of Escherichia coli",
abstract = "The heat-stable enterotoxins (STs) produced by enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli are classified into two groups, methanol-soluble (STI) and methanol-insoluble (STII) enterotoxins. These are distinct toxins with unique properties. Their features in common include heat-stability, low molecular weight, secretion from the bacteria, and ability to induce fluid secretion from the intestine. STI is an 18- or 19-amino acid extracellular peptide with three intramolecular disulfide bonds, which is produced by proteolytic cleavage of 72 amino acid precursor. The STI in the lumen of the intestine binds to specific protein receptors (guanylate cyclase C) located in the brush border membrane and leads to elevation of intracellular cyclic GMP level. Several factors involved in the activation of guanylate cyclase by STI have been identified. Elevation of cyclic GMP level induces intestinal fluid secretion by stimulation of chloride secretion. Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator, which is a chloride channel, might be involved in chloride secretion. In contrast, STII is a 48-amino acid peptide with two intramolecular disulfide bonds, which results from 71 amino acid precursor. Compared with STI, the steps that lead to intestinal fluid secretion by STII are not well established. It has been proposed that sulfatide in the brush border is a receptor for STII and that the STII bound to the receptor opens GTP-binding regulatory protein-linked calcium channels. These actions of STII induce not only stimulation of the production of secretagogues such as prostaglandin E2 and serotonin, but also activation of the calcium-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II in the cells.",
author = "Keinosuke Okamoto and H. Yamanaka",
year = "2000",
language = "English",
volume = "9",
pages = "213--229",
journal = "Journal of Natural Toxins",
issn = "1058-8108",
publisher = "Alaken Inc.",
number = "3",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Properties and actions of heat-stable enterotoxin of Escherichia coli

AU - Okamoto, Keinosuke

AU - Yamanaka, H.

PY - 2000

Y1 - 2000

N2 - The heat-stable enterotoxins (STs) produced by enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli are classified into two groups, methanol-soluble (STI) and methanol-insoluble (STII) enterotoxins. These are distinct toxins with unique properties. Their features in common include heat-stability, low molecular weight, secretion from the bacteria, and ability to induce fluid secretion from the intestine. STI is an 18- or 19-amino acid extracellular peptide with three intramolecular disulfide bonds, which is produced by proteolytic cleavage of 72 amino acid precursor. The STI in the lumen of the intestine binds to specific protein receptors (guanylate cyclase C) located in the brush border membrane and leads to elevation of intracellular cyclic GMP level. Several factors involved in the activation of guanylate cyclase by STI have been identified. Elevation of cyclic GMP level induces intestinal fluid secretion by stimulation of chloride secretion. Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator, which is a chloride channel, might be involved in chloride secretion. In contrast, STII is a 48-amino acid peptide with two intramolecular disulfide bonds, which results from 71 amino acid precursor. Compared with STI, the steps that lead to intestinal fluid secretion by STII are not well established. It has been proposed that sulfatide in the brush border is a receptor for STII and that the STII bound to the receptor opens GTP-binding regulatory protein-linked calcium channels. These actions of STII induce not only stimulation of the production of secretagogues such as prostaglandin E2 and serotonin, but also activation of the calcium-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II in the cells.

AB - The heat-stable enterotoxins (STs) produced by enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli are classified into two groups, methanol-soluble (STI) and methanol-insoluble (STII) enterotoxins. These are distinct toxins with unique properties. Their features in common include heat-stability, low molecular weight, secretion from the bacteria, and ability to induce fluid secretion from the intestine. STI is an 18- or 19-amino acid extracellular peptide with three intramolecular disulfide bonds, which is produced by proteolytic cleavage of 72 amino acid precursor. The STI in the lumen of the intestine binds to specific protein receptors (guanylate cyclase C) located in the brush border membrane and leads to elevation of intracellular cyclic GMP level. Several factors involved in the activation of guanylate cyclase by STI have been identified. Elevation of cyclic GMP level induces intestinal fluid secretion by stimulation of chloride secretion. Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator, which is a chloride channel, might be involved in chloride secretion. In contrast, STII is a 48-amino acid peptide with two intramolecular disulfide bonds, which results from 71 amino acid precursor. Compared with STI, the steps that lead to intestinal fluid secretion by STII are not well established. It has been proposed that sulfatide in the brush border is a receptor for STII and that the STII bound to the receptor opens GTP-binding regulatory protein-linked calcium channels. These actions of STII induce not only stimulation of the production of secretagogues such as prostaglandin E2 and serotonin, but also activation of the calcium-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II in the cells.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0033864674&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0033864674&partnerID=8YFLogxK

M3 - Article

VL - 9

SP - 213

EP - 229

JO - Journal of Natural Toxins

JF - Journal of Natural Toxins

SN - 1058-8108

IS - 3

ER -