Prognostic value of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease for predicting cardiovascular events in patients with diabetes mellitus with suspected coronary artery disease: a prospective cohort study

Keishi Ichikawa, Toru Miyoshi, Kazuhiro Osawa, Takashi Miki, Hironobu Toda, Kentaro Ejiri, Masatoki Yoshida, Yusuke Nanba, Masashi Yoshida, Kazufumi Nakamura, Hiroshi Morita, Hiroshi Ito

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background: Risk stratification of cardiovascular events in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) has not been established. Coronary artery calcium score (CACS) and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) are independently associated with cardiovascular events in T2DM patients. This study examined the incremental prognostic value of NAFLD assessed by non-enhanced computed tomography (CT) in addition to CACS and Framingham risk score (FRS) for cardiovascular events in T2DM patients. Methods: This prospective pilot study included 529 T2DM outpatients with no history of cardiovascular disease who underwent CACS measurement because of suspected coronary artery disease. NAFLD was defined on CT images as a liver:spleen attenuation ratio < 1.0. Cardiovascular events were defined as cardiovascular death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, late coronary revascularization, nonfatal stroke, or hospitalization for heart failure. Results: Among 529 patients (61% men, mean age 65 years), NAFLD was identified in 143 (27%). Forty-four cardiovascular events were documented during a median follow-up of 4.4 years. In multivariate Cox regression analysis, NAFLD, CACS, and FRS were associated with cardiovascular events (hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals 5.43, 2.82–10.44, p < 0.001; 1.56, 1.32–1.86, p < 0.001; 1.23, 1.08–1.39, p = 0.001, respectively). The global χ2 score for predicting cardiovascular events increased significantly from 27.0 to 49.7 by adding NAFLD to CACS and FRS (p < 0.001). The addition of NAFLD to a model including CACS and FRS significantly increased the C-statistic from 0.71 to 0.80 (p = 0.005). The net reclassification achieved by adding CACS and FRS was 0.551 (p < 0.001). Conclusions: NAFLD assessed by CT, in addition to CACS and FRS, could be useful for identifying T2DM patients at higher risk of cardiovascular events.

Original languageEnglish
Article number8
JournalCardiovascular Diabetology
Volume20
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2021
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • Cardiovascular disease
  • Computed tomography
  • Coronary artery calcium
  • Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease
  • Risk stratification

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Internal Medicine
  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine

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