Pediatric acute megakaryoblastic leukemia in non-Down syndrome (AMKL) is a unique subtype of acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Novel CBFA2T3-GLIS2 and NUP98-KDM5A fusions recurrently found in AMKL were recently reported as poor prognostic factors. However, their detailed clinical and molecular characteristics in patients treated with recent improved therapies remain uncertain. We analyzed molecular features of 44 AMKL patients treated on two recent Japanese AML protocols, the AML99 and AML-05 trials. We identified CBFA2T3-GLIS2, NUP98-KDM5A, RBM15-MKL1, and KMT2A rearrangements in 12 (27%), 4 (9%), 2 (5%), and 3 (7%) patients, respectively. Among 459 other AML patients, NUP98-KDM5A was identified in 3 patients, whereas CBFA2T3-GLIS2 and RBM15-MKL1 were only present in AMKL. GATA1 mutations were found in 5 patients (11%). Four-year overall survival (OS) and event-free survival (EFS) rates of CBFA2T3-GLIS2-positive patients in AMKL were 41.7% and 16.7%, respectively. Three-year cumulative incidence of relapse in CBFA2T3-GLIS2-positive patients was significantly higher than that of CBFA2T3-GLIS2-negative patients (75.0% vs. 35.7%, P = 0.024). In multivariate analyses, CBFA2T3-GLIS2 was an independent poor prognostic factor for OS (HR, 4.34; 95% CI, 1.31–14.38) and EFS (HR, 2.95; 95% CI, 1.20–7.23). Furthermore, seven (54%) of 13 infant AMKL patients were CBFA2T3-GLIS2-positive. Notably, out of 7 CBFA2T3-GLIS2-positive infants, six (86%) relapsed and five (71%) died. Moreover, all of CBFA2T3-GLIS2-positive patients who experienced induction failure (n = 3) were infants, indicating worse prognosis of CBFA2T3-GLIS2-positive infants. These findings indicated the significance of CBFA2T3-GLIS2 as a poor prognostic factor in AMKL patients, particularly in infants.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cancer Research