Background The Japan Chronic Kidney Disease Database (J-CKD-DB) is a nationwide clinical database of patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) based on electronic health records. The objective of this study was to assess the prevalence of anemia and the utilization rate of erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) in Japanese patients with CKD. Methods In total, 31,082 adult outpatients with estimated glomerular filtration rates of 5–60 ml/min/1.73 m2 in seven university hospitals were included this analysis. The proportions of patients with CKD stages G3b, G4, and G5 were 23.5%, 7.6%, and 3.1%, respectively. Results The mean (standard deviation) hemoglobin level of male patients was 13.6 (1.9) g/dl, which was significantly higher than the mean hemoglobin level of female patients (12.4 (1.6) g/dl). The mean (standard deviation) hemoglobin levels were 11.4 (2.1) g/dl in patients with CKD stage G4 and 11.2 (1.8) g/dl in patients with CKD stage G5. The prevalences of anemia were 40.1% in patients with CKD stage G4 and 60.3% in patients with CKD stage G5. Logistic regression analysis showed that diagnoses of CKD stage G3b (adjusted odds ratio [95% confidence interval]: 2.32 [2.09–2.58]), G4 (5.50 [4.80–6.31]), and G5 (9.75 [8.13–11.7]) were associated with increased prevalence of anemia. The utilization rates of ESAs were 7.9% in patients with CKD stage G4 and 22.4% in patients with CKD stage G5. Conclusions We determined the prevalence of anemia and utilization rate of ESAs in Japanese patients with CKD using data from a nationwide cohort study.
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