Potential Probiotic Characteristics and Safety Assessment of Lactobacillus rhamnosus SKG34 Isolated from Sumbawa Mare's Milk

I. Nengah Sujaya, Gede Ngurah Rsi Suwardana, Kazuyoshi Gotoh, I. Wayan Sumardika, Komang Ayu Nocianitri, Ni Putu Sriwidyani, I. Wayan Gede Artawan Eka Putra, Masakiyo Sakaguchi, Ni Nengah Dwi Fatmawati

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Lactobacillus rhamnosus SKG34 (LrSKG34), a potential probiotic strain, was successfully isolated from Sumbawa Mare's milk. Our previous studies showed that the strain is resistant to gastrointestinal conditions, possesses antioxidant activity, and lowers blood cholesterol levels. Further clarification of the potential probiotic characteristics and safety assessment are necessary. This study aimed to evaluate the adhesion of LrSKG34 to Caco-2 cell monolayers and its effect on mucosal integrity in vitro. We also examined the LrSKG34 safety profile based on antimicrobial susceptibility testing, haemolytic activity determination, Caco-2 cell monolayer translocation evaluation, and in vivo investigation of the effect of LrSKG34 on the physiology, biochemical markers, and histopathological appearance of major organs in an animal model. LrSKG34 attached to Caco-2 cell monolayers and maintained mucosal integrity in vitro. The typical resistance of lactobacilli to ciprofloxacin, gentamicin, vancomycin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, and metronidazole was confirmed for LrSKG34. No haemolytic activity was observed on blood agar plates, and no LrSKG34 translocation was observed in Caco-2 cell monolayers. Administration of LrSKG34 to Sprague- Dawley rats did not adversely affect body weight. No abnormalities in hematological parameters, serum biochemistry levels, or histopathological structures of major organs were observed in LrSKG34-treated rats. Collectively, the results implicate LrSKG34 as a promising and potentially safe probiotic candidate for further development.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)51-62
Number of pages12
JournalMicrobiology and Biotechnology Letters
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Mar 28 2022


  • adhesion
  • Lactobacillus rhamnosus SKG34
  • mucosal integrity
  • safety in vitro
  • safety in vivo

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biotechnology
  • Microbiology
  • Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology


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