Pigment-dispersing factor sets the night state of the medulla bilateral neurons in the optic lobe of the cricket, Gryllus bimaculatus

A. S M Saifullah, Kenji Tomioka

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40 Citations (Scopus)


Pigment-dispersing factor (PDF) is an octadeca-neuropeptide widely distributed in the insect brain and suggested to be involved in the insect circadian systems. We have examined its effects on the neuronal activity of the brain efferents in the optic stalk including medulla bilateral neurons (MBNs) in the cricket, Gryllus bimaculatus. The MBNs are visually responding interneurons connecting the bilateral medulla, which show a clear day/night change in their light responsiveness that is greater during the night. Microinjection of PDF into the optic lobe induced a significant increase in the spontaneous activity of the brain efferents and the photo-responsiveness of the MBNs during the day, while little change was induced during the night. The enhancing effects began to occur about 20 min after the injection and another 10 min was necessary to reach the maximal level. The effects of PDF were dose-dependent. When 22 nl of anti-Gryllus-PDF (1:200) IgG was injected into the medulla, the photo-responsiveness of the MBNs was suppressed in both the day and the night with greater magnitude during the night. No significant suppression was induced by injection of the same amount of IgG from normal rabbit serum. These results suggest that in the cricket optic lobe, PDF is released during the night and enhances MBNs' photo-responsiveness to set their night state.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)231-239
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Insect Physiology
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - Mar 1 2003
Externally publishedYes



  • Circadian rhythm
  • Cricket
  • Medulla bilateral neurons
  • Pigment-dispersing factor

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Insect Science
  • Physiology

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