Phytochrome C is a key factor controlling long-day flowering in barley

Hidetaka Nishida, Daisuke Ishihara, Makoto Ishii, Takuma Kaneko, Hiroyuki Kawahigashi, Yukari Akashi, Daisuke Saisho, Katsunori Tanaka, Hirokazu Handa, Kazuyoshi Takeda, Kenji Kato

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Abstract

The spring-type near isogenic line (NIL) of the winter-type barley (Hordeum vulgare ssp. vulgare) var. Hayakiso 2 (HK2) was developed by introducing VERNALIZATION-H1 (Vrn-H1) for spring growth habit from the spring-type var. Indo Omugi. Contrary to expectations, the spring-type NIL flowered later than winter-type HK2. This phenotypic difference was controlled by a single gene, which cosegregated only with phytochrome C (HvPhyC) among three candidates around the Vrn-H1 region (Vrn-H1, HvPhyC, and CASEIN KINASE IIα), indicating that HvPhyC was the most likely candidate gene. Compared with the late-flowering allele HvPhyC-l from the NIL, the early-flowering allele HvPhyC-e from HK2 had a single nucleotide polymorphism T1139C in exon 1, which caused a nonsynonymous amino acid substitution of phenylalanine at position 380 by serine in the functionally essential GAF (39, 59-cyclic-GMP phosphodiesterase, adenylate cyclase, formate hydrogen lyase activator protein) domain. Functional assay using a rice (Oryza sativa) phyA phyC double mutant line showed that both of the HvPhyC alleles are functional, but HvPhyC-e may have a hyperfunction. Expression analysis using NILs carrying HvPhyC-e and HvPhyC-l (NIL [HvPhyC-e] and NIL [HvPhyC-l], respectively) showed that HvPhyC-e up-regulated only the flowering promoter FLOWERING LOCUS T1 by bypassing the circadian clock genes and flowering integrator CONSTANS1 under a long photoperiod. Consistent with the up-regulation, NIL (HvPhyC-e) flowered earlier than NIL (HvPhyC-l) under long photoperiods. These results implied that HvPhyC is a key factor to control long-day flowering directly.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)804-814
Number of pages11
JournalPlant Physiology
Volume163
Issue number2
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Oct 2013

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Phytochrome
isogenic lines
Hordeum
phytochrome
Alleles
barley
Photoperiod
flowering
Genes
Circadian Clocks
Cyclic GMP
Phosphoric Diester Hydrolases
Amino Acid Substitution
Phenylalanine
Adenylyl Cyclases
Serine
Habits
Single Nucleotide Polymorphism
alleles
Exons

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Plant Science
  • Genetics
  • Physiology

Cite this

Phytochrome C is a key factor controlling long-day flowering in barley. / Nishida, Hidetaka; Ishihara, Daisuke; Ishii, Makoto; Kaneko, Takuma; Kawahigashi, Hiroyuki; Akashi, Yukari; Saisho, Daisuke; Tanaka, Katsunori; Handa, Hirokazu; Takeda, Kazuyoshi; Kato, Kenji.

In: Plant Physiology, Vol. 163, No. 2, 10.2013, p. 804-814.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Nishida, H, Ishihara, D, Ishii, M, Kaneko, T, Kawahigashi, H, Akashi, Y, Saisho, D, Tanaka, K, Handa, H, Takeda, K & Kato, K 2013, 'Phytochrome C is a key factor controlling long-day flowering in barley', Plant Physiology, vol. 163, no. 2, pp. 804-814. https://doi.org/10.1104/pp.113.222570
Nishida H, Ishihara D, Ishii M, Kaneko T, Kawahigashi H, Akashi Y et al. Phytochrome C is a key factor controlling long-day flowering in barley. Plant Physiology. 2013 Oct;163(2):804-814. https://doi.org/10.1104/pp.113.222570
Nishida, Hidetaka ; Ishihara, Daisuke ; Ishii, Makoto ; Kaneko, Takuma ; Kawahigashi, Hiroyuki ; Akashi, Yukari ; Saisho, Daisuke ; Tanaka, Katsunori ; Handa, Hirokazu ; Takeda, Kazuyoshi ; Kato, Kenji. / Phytochrome C is a key factor controlling long-day flowering in barley. In: Plant Physiology. 2013 ; Vol. 163, No. 2. pp. 804-814.
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