Epidemiological studies suggest UVA play a significant role in the induction of skin cancers. Nucleic acids and proteins have extremely weak extinctions in UVA and visible light regions. The absorption of UVA energy is dependent on endogenous or exogenous sensitizers, and the photogenotoxicity of UVA is derived from the excited sensitizers. Photosensitive medicines, carcinogens and endogenous compounds can participate in UVA-induced photogenotoxicity and photomutagenicity. Irradiated medicines reported to be involved in photosensitization and phototoxicity such as antipsychotics, antihistamine agents, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, antihypertensive drugs, anti-diabetic agents, antibiotics, antifungal drugs and antibacterial agents. As an alternate pathway for activation, several carcinogens can be converted with UVA to reactive intermediates that bind DNA in the absence of the activation enzymes. Several endogenous compounds have also been reported to act photosensitizers. Photogenotoxicity and photomutagenicity are unwanted side-effects related to the UV-mediated activation of chemicals. In considering risks and benefits, the interrelationship between light, chemicals and human health remain an important topic of research.
- DNA damage
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Social Psychology
- Environmental Science (miscellaneous)