Small interfering RNA (siRNA) and short hairpin RNA (shRNA) may potentially treat a wide variety of diseases through RNA interference-mediated silencing of specific genes. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are endogenous regulatory RNA molecules that also modulate gene expression, and thus potential therapeutic approaches using miRNAs have attracted attention. For clinical application of these small RNAs, efficient and safe RNA delivery to target tissues and cells is necessary. Current challenges to RNA delivery are the penetration of negatively charged RNAs through the cell membrane and specific delivery of RNA into target cells. Photocontrolled intracellular RNA delivery is a promising strategy with high target specificity. This strategy includes photodependent endosomal escape of RNA or photodependent release of RNAs from carrier particles. In this chapter, photocontrolled intracellular RNA delivery methods employing gold or silver nanoparticles, upconversion nanoparticles, proteins, or polymers are discussed.