1. To elucidate the determining factors for elimination pathways of sulfate and glucuronide metabolites of xenobiotics, a single-pass perfusion of 4-methylumbelliferone (4MU) or p-nitrophenol (pNP) was performed with an isolated rat liver preparation. 2. Without bovine serum albumin in the perfusion system, clearance calculated based on the unbound concentration in the liver clearly showed that the net efflux clearances (CLeff) of sulfates from the sinusoidal membrane were much higher than those of glucuronides and that the biliary excretion clearances (CLb) of glucuronides were approximately two times larger than those of sulfates. 3. The ratios of CLeff to CLb were much higher for sulfates than those for glucuronides. The bile-oriented elimination of glucuronides or sinusoidal efflux-oriented elimination of sulfates was observed even using the perfusate including 3% bovine serum albumin, but the sinusoidal efflux of sulfates was extensively enhanced by bovine serum albumin in the perfusate. The mechanisms behind this stimulatory effect remain to be elucidated. 4. For both compounds, CLb of glucuronide was comparable with CLb of sulfate, meaning that CLb is not responsible for the biliary excretion of glucuronides at extensively higher rate than sulfates. 5. Higher concentration of glucuronides in the liver, partly caused by much lower CL eff of glucuronides than that of sulfates, is likely responsible for the bile-oriented excretion of glucuronides. The extensive sinusoidal efflux of sulfates, leading to the urine-oriented excretion, is attributed to the substantially higher CLeff than CLb. 6. In conclusion, the sinusoidal efflux is an important factor for determining elimination pathways of both sulfates and glucuronides, although further studies are needed to clarify the mechanisms of the sinusoidal efflux.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis