Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are the products of a series of nonenzymatic modifications of proteins by reducing sugars. AGEs play a pivotal role in development of diabetic complications and atherosclerosis. Accumulation of AGEs in a vessel wall may contribute to the development of vascular lesions. Although AGEs have a diverse range of bioactivities, the clearance process of AGEs from the extracellular space, including the incorporation of AGEs into specific cells, subcellular localization, and the fate of AGEs, remains unclear. In the present study, we examined the kinetics of the uptake of AGEs by mouse macrophage J774.1 cells in vitro and characterized the process. We demonstrated that AGEs bound to the surface of the cells and were also incorporated into the cytoplasm. The temperature- and time-dependent uptake of AGEs was saturable with AGE concentration and was inhibited by cytochalasin D but not chlorpromazine. We also observed the granule-like appearance of AGE immunoreactivity in subcellular localizations in macrophages. Higher concentrations of AGEs induced intracellular ROS and 4-HNE, which were associated with activation of the NF-κB pathway and caspase-3. These results suggest that incorporation of AGEs occurred actively by endocytosis in macrophages, leading to apoptosis of these cells through NF-κB activation.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cell Biology