Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor activity is involved in the osteoblastic differentiation regulated by bone morphogenetic proteins and tumor necrosis factor-α

Mariko Takano, Fumio Otsuka, Yoshinori Matsumoto, Kenichi Inagaki, Masaya Takeda, Eri Nakamura, Naoko Tsukamoto, Tomoko Miyoshi, Kenei Sada, Hirofumi Makino

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Abstract

Recent studies have suggested possible adverse effects of thiazolidinediones on bone metabolism. However, the detailed mechanism by which the activity of PPAR affects bone formation has not been elucidated. Impaired osteoblastic function due to cytokines is critical for the progression of inflammatory bone diseases. In the present study, we investigated the cellular mechanism by which PPAR actions interact with osteoblast differentiation regulated by BMP and TNF-α using mouse myoblastic C2C12 cells. BMP-2 and -4 potently induced the expression of various bone differentiation markers including Runx2, osteocalcin, type-1 collagen and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) in C2C12 cells. When administered in combination with a PPARα agonist (fenofibric acid) but not with a PPARγ agonist (pioglitazone), BMP-4 enhanced osteoblast differentiation through the activity of PPARα. The osteoblastic changes induced by BMP-4 were readily suppressed by treatment with TNF-α. Interestingly, the activities of PPARα and PPARγ agonists reversed the suppression by TNF-α of osteoblast differentiation induced by BMP-4. Furthermore, TNF-α-induced phosphorylation of MAPKs, NFκB, IκB and Stat pathways was inhibited in the presence of PPARα and PPARγ agonists with reducing TNF-α receptor expression. In view of the finding that inhibition of SAPK/JNK, Stat and NFκB pathways reversed the TNF-α suppression of osteoblast differentiation, we conclude that these cascades are functionally involved in the actions of PPARs that antagonize TNF-α-induced suppression of osteoblast differentiation. It was further discovered that the PPARα agonist enhanced BMP-4-induced Smad1/5/8 signaling through downregulation of inhibitory Smad6/7 expression, whereas the PPARγ agonist impaired this activity by suppressing BMPRII expression. On the other hand, BMPs increased the expression levels of PPARα and PPARγ in the process of osteoblast differentiation. Thus, PPARα actions promote BMP-induced osteoblast differentiation, while both activities of PPARα and PPARγ suppress TNF-α actions. Collectively, our present data establishes that PPAR activities are functionally involved in modulating the interaction between the BMP system and TNF-α receptor signaling that is crucial for bone metabolism.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)224-232
Number of pages9
JournalMolecular and Cellular Endocrinology
Volume348
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2 2012

Fingerprint

Bone Morphogenetic Proteins
Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors
Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
Osteoblasts
Bone
Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptors
pioglitazone
Metabolism
Bone and Bones
Thiazolidinediones
Phosphorylation
Bone Diseases
Osteocalcin
Differentiation Antigens

Keywords

  • Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)
  • Osteoblast
  • Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)
  • Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α)

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Endocrinology
  • Molecular Biology
  • Biochemistry

Cite this

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title = "Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor activity is involved in the osteoblastic differentiation regulated by bone morphogenetic proteins and tumor necrosis factor-α",
abstract = "Recent studies have suggested possible adverse effects of thiazolidinediones on bone metabolism. However, the detailed mechanism by which the activity of PPAR affects bone formation has not been elucidated. Impaired osteoblastic function due to cytokines is critical for the progression of inflammatory bone diseases. In the present study, we investigated the cellular mechanism by which PPAR actions interact with osteoblast differentiation regulated by BMP and TNF-α using mouse myoblastic C2C12 cells. BMP-2 and -4 potently induced the expression of various bone differentiation markers including Runx2, osteocalcin, type-1 collagen and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) in C2C12 cells. When administered in combination with a PPARα agonist (fenofibric acid) but not with a PPARγ agonist (pioglitazone), BMP-4 enhanced osteoblast differentiation through the activity of PPARα. The osteoblastic changes induced by BMP-4 were readily suppressed by treatment with TNF-α. Interestingly, the activities of PPARα and PPARγ agonists reversed the suppression by TNF-α of osteoblast differentiation induced by BMP-4. Furthermore, TNF-α-induced phosphorylation of MAPKs, NFκB, IκB and Stat pathways was inhibited in the presence of PPARα and PPARγ agonists with reducing TNF-α receptor expression. In view of the finding that inhibition of SAPK/JNK, Stat and NFκB pathways reversed the TNF-α suppression of osteoblast differentiation, we conclude that these cascades are functionally involved in the actions of PPARs that antagonize TNF-α-induced suppression of osteoblast differentiation. It was further discovered that the PPARα agonist enhanced BMP-4-induced Smad1/5/8 signaling through downregulation of inhibitory Smad6/7 expression, whereas the PPARγ agonist impaired this activity by suppressing BMPRII expression. On the other hand, BMPs increased the expression levels of PPARα and PPARγ in the process of osteoblast differentiation. Thus, PPARα actions promote BMP-induced osteoblast differentiation, while both activities of PPARα and PPARγ suppress TNF-α actions. Collectively, our present data establishes that PPAR activities are functionally involved in modulating the interaction between the BMP system and TNF-α receptor signaling that is crucial for bone metabolism.",
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author = "Mariko Takano and Fumio Otsuka and Yoshinori Matsumoto and Kenichi Inagaki and Masaya Takeda and Eri Nakamura and Naoko Tsukamoto and Tomoko Miyoshi and Kenei Sada and Hirofumi Makino",
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T1 - Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor activity is involved in the osteoblastic differentiation regulated by bone morphogenetic proteins and tumor necrosis factor-α

AU - Takano, Mariko

AU - Otsuka, Fumio

AU - Matsumoto, Yoshinori

AU - Inagaki, Kenichi

AU - Takeda, Masaya

AU - Nakamura, Eri

AU - Tsukamoto, Naoko

AU - Miyoshi, Tomoko

AU - Sada, Kenei

AU - Makino, Hirofumi

PY - 2012/1/2

Y1 - 2012/1/2

N2 - Recent studies have suggested possible adverse effects of thiazolidinediones on bone metabolism. However, the detailed mechanism by which the activity of PPAR affects bone formation has not been elucidated. Impaired osteoblastic function due to cytokines is critical for the progression of inflammatory bone diseases. In the present study, we investigated the cellular mechanism by which PPAR actions interact with osteoblast differentiation regulated by BMP and TNF-α using mouse myoblastic C2C12 cells. BMP-2 and -4 potently induced the expression of various bone differentiation markers including Runx2, osteocalcin, type-1 collagen and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) in C2C12 cells. When administered in combination with a PPARα agonist (fenofibric acid) but not with a PPARγ agonist (pioglitazone), BMP-4 enhanced osteoblast differentiation through the activity of PPARα. The osteoblastic changes induced by BMP-4 were readily suppressed by treatment with TNF-α. Interestingly, the activities of PPARα and PPARγ agonists reversed the suppression by TNF-α of osteoblast differentiation induced by BMP-4. Furthermore, TNF-α-induced phosphorylation of MAPKs, NFκB, IκB and Stat pathways was inhibited in the presence of PPARα and PPARγ agonists with reducing TNF-α receptor expression. In view of the finding that inhibition of SAPK/JNK, Stat and NFκB pathways reversed the TNF-α suppression of osteoblast differentiation, we conclude that these cascades are functionally involved in the actions of PPARs that antagonize TNF-α-induced suppression of osteoblast differentiation. It was further discovered that the PPARα agonist enhanced BMP-4-induced Smad1/5/8 signaling through downregulation of inhibitory Smad6/7 expression, whereas the PPARγ agonist impaired this activity by suppressing BMPRII expression. On the other hand, BMPs increased the expression levels of PPARα and PPARγ in the process of osteoblast differentiation. Thus, PPARα actions promote BMP-induced osteoblast differentiation, while both activities of PPARα and PPARγ suppress TNF-α actions. Collectively, our present data establishes that PPAR activities are functionally involved in modulating the interaction between the BMP system and TNF-α receptor signaling that is crucial for bone metabolism.

AB - Recent studies have suggested possible adverse effects of thiazolidinediones on bone metabolism. However, the detailed mechanism by which the activity of PPAR affects bone formation has not been elucidated. Impaired osteoblastic function due to cytokines is critical for the progression of inflammatory bone diseases. In the present study, we investigated the cellular mechanism by which PPAR actions interact with osteoblast differentiation regulated by BMP and TNF-α using mouse myoblastic C2C12 cells. BMP-2 and -4 potently induced the expression of various bone differentiation markers including Runx2, osteocalcin, type-1 collagen and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) in C2C12 cells. When administered in combination with a PPARα agonist (fenofibric acid) but not with a PPARγ agonist (pioglitazone), BMP-4 enhanced osteoblast differentiation through the activity of PPARα. The osteoblastic changes induced by BMP-4 were readily suppressed by treatment with TNF-α. Interestingly, the activities of PPARα and PPARγ agonists reversed the suppression by TNF-α of osteoblast differentiation induced by BMP-4. Furthermore, TNF-α-induced phosphorylation of MAPKs, NFκB, IκB and Stat pathways was inhibited in the presence of PPARα and PPARγ agonists with reducing TNF-α receptor expression. In view of the finding that inhibition of SAPK/JNK, Stat and NFκB pathways reversed the TNF-α suppression of osteoblast differentiation, we conclude that these cascades are functionally involved in the actions of PPARs that antagonize TNF-α-induced suppression of osteoblast differentiation. It was further discovered that the PPARα agonist enhanced BMP-4-induced Smad1/5/8 signaling through downregulation of inhibitory Smad6/7 expression, whereas the PPARγ agonist impaired this activity by suppressing BMPRII expression. On the other hand, BMPs increased the expression levels of PPARα and PPARγ in the process of osteoblast differentiation. Thus, PPARα actions promote BMP-induced osteoblast differentiation, while both activities of PPARα and PPARγ suppress TNF-α actions. Collectively, our present data establishes that PPAR activities are functionally involved in modulating the interaction between the BMP system and TNF-α receptor signaling that is crucial for bone metabolism.

KW - Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)

KW - Osteoblast

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KW - Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α)

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