Peritoneal dialysis alters tolbutamide pharmacokinetics in rats with experimental acute renal failure.

Tetsuya Aiba, Mizuki Horiuchi, Takashi Makita, Yukiko Komori, Hiromu Kawasaki, Yuji Kurosaki

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Abstract

The plasma concentration profile of the antidiabetic agent tolbutamide was investigated in glycerol-induced acute renal failure (ARF) rats receiving or not receiving peritoneal dialysis (PD) to assess the impact of performing dialysis on tolbutamide pharmacokinetics. It was revealed that the plasma concentration of tolbutamide was decreased by 23.4% by performing PD in ARF rats, while it was not changed by PD in normal rats. The decrease in the plasma concentration of tolbutamide was nearly proportional to the increase in its volume of distribution. To clarify the mechanisms responsible for the decreased tolbutamide concentration caused by PD, the plasma protein binding of tolbutamide was examined in normal and ARF rats. The plasma unbound fraction of tolbutamide was higher in ARF rats than in normal rats, and the dissociation constants were 3.5+/-0.7 and 5.5+/-0.2 microg in normal and ARF rats, respectively. These results indicated that the unbound fraction of tolbutamide was increased in ARF rats because of its protein binding being suppressed. It is therefore likely that since a measurable amount of tolbutamide can distribute in peritoneal dialysate in ARF rats, but not in normal rats, the plasma concentration of tolbutamide was decreased by performing PD only in ARF rats. These findings suggest that diabetes medication with tolbutamide should be carefully performed in patients receiving dialysis treatment.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)291-296
Number of pages6
JournalDrug metabolism and pharmacokinetics
Volume21
Issue number4
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Aug 2006

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ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pharmacology
  • Pharmaceutical Science
  • Pharmacology (medical)

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