Background: We prospectively evaluated the safety and efficacy of percutaneous cryoablation combined with transcatheter renal arterial embolization for the treatment of tumors ≥ 3 cm in diameter. Methods: We included patients aged ≥ 20 years with histologically proven renal cell carcinoma with a tumor diameter ≥ 3 cm who were inoperable or refused surgery. Prior to ablation, transcatheter arterial embolization was performed using a mixture of absolute ethanol and iodized oil. All cryoablation procedures were performed percutaneously under computed tomography fluoroscopy guidance. The primary endpoint was safety, which was evaluated for adverse events using CTCAE version 4.0. The secondary endpoint was survival; overall survival, progression-free survival, and cancer-specific survival were calculated. Results: From October 2013 to March 2016, 19 patients (mean age, 75 ± 13 years; 5 women, 14 men) were prospectively enrolled. The mean tumor diameter was 3.9 ± 0.7 (range 3.1–5.3) cm. Four grade 3 hematologic adverse events occurred, while no symptomatic grade ≥ 3 events occurred. The median follow-up period was 68 (range 52–84) months. During the follow-up period, two patients developed local tumor progression at 3 and 42 months after the initial ablative procedure; no patient showed distant metastasis. Two patients died from causes other than RCC. Overall survival, progression-free survival, and cause-specific survival were 100%, 95%, and 100% at 3 years, and 95%, 84%, and 100% at 5 years, respectively. Conclusion: Percutaneous cryoablation combined with prior TAE for the treatment of tumors ≥ 3 cm in diameter was safe and achieved favorable survival.
- Renal cell carcinoma
- Transcatheter arterial embolization
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