Polyploidy is a widespread phenomenon in eukaryotes that can lead to phenotypic novelty and has important implications for evolution and diversification. The modification of phenotypes in polyploids relative to their diploid progenitors may be associated with altered gene expression. However, it is largely unknown how interactions between duplicated genes affect their diurnal expression in allopolyploid species. In this study, we explored parental legacy and hybrid novelty in the transcriptomes of an allopolyploid species and its diploid progenitors. We compared the diurnal transcriptomes of representative Brachypodium cytotypes, including the allotetraploid Brachypodium hybridum and its diploid progenitors Brachypodium distachyon and Brachypodium stacei. We also artificially induced an autotetraploid B. distachyon. We identified patterns of homoeolog expression bias (HEB) across Brachypodium cytotypes and time-dependent gain and loss of HEB in B. hybridum. Furthermore, we established that many genes with diurnal expression experienced HEB, while their expression patterns and peak times were correlated between homoeologs in B. hybridum relative to B. distachyon and B. stacei, suggesting diurnal synchronization of homoeolog expression in B. hybridum. Our findings provide insight into the parental legacy and hybrid novelty associated with polyploidy in Brachypodium, and highlight the evolutionary consequences of diurnal transcriptional regulation that accompanied allopolyploidy.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Structural Biology
- Molecular Biology
- Computer Science Applications
- Applied Mathematics