Parageneses and compositions of amphiboles from Franciscan jadeite–glaucophane type facies series metabasites at Cazadero, California

J. G. LIOU, S. MARUYAMA

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    Abstract

    Abstract Sodic amphiboles are common in Franciscan type II and type III metabasites from Cazadero, California. They occur as (1) vein‐fillings, (2) overgrowths on relict augites, (3) discrete tiny crystals in the groundmass, and (4) composite crystals with metamorphic Ca–Na pyroxenes in low‐grade rocks. They become coarse‐grained and show strong preferred orientation in schistose high‐grade rocks. In the lowest grade, only riebeckite to crossite appears; with increasing grade, sodic amphibole becomes, first, enriched in glaucophane component, later coexists with actinolite, and finally, at even higher grade, becomes winchite. Actinolite first appears in foliated blueschists of the upper pumpellyite zone. It occurs (1) interlayered on a millimetre scale with glaucophane prisms and (2) as segments of composite amphibole crystals. Actinolite is considered to be in equilibrium with other high‐pressure phases on the basis of its restricted occurrence in higher grade rocks, textural and compositional characteristics, and Fe/Mg distribution coefficient between actinolite and chlorite. Detailed analyses delineate a compositional gap for coexisting sodic and calcic amphiboles. At the highest grade, winchite appears at the expense of the actinolite–glaucophane pair. Compositional characteristics of Franciscan amphiboles from Ward Creek are compared with those of other high P/T facies series. The amphibole trend in terms of major components is very sensitive to the metamorphic field gradient. Na‐amphibole appears at lower grade than actinolite along the higher P/T facies series (e.g. Franciscan and New Caledonia), whereas reverse relations occur in the lower P/T facies series (e.g. Sanbagawa and New Zealand). Available data also indicate that at low‐temperature conditions, such as those of the blueschist and pumpellyite–actinolite facies, large compositional gaps exist between Ca‐ and Na‐amphiboles, and between actinolite and hornblende, whereas at higher temperatures such as in the epidote–amphibolite, greenschist and eclogite facies, the gaps become very restricted. Common occurrence of both sodic and calcic amphiboles and Ca–Na pyroxene together with albite + quartz in the Ward Creek metabasites and their compositional trends are characteristic of the jadeite–glaucophane type facies series. In New Caledonia blueschists, Ca–Na pyroxenes are also common; Na‐amphiboles do not appear alone at low grade in metabasites, instead, Na‐amphiboles coexist with Ca‐amphiboles throughout the progressive sequence. However, for metabasites of the intermediate pressure facies series, such as those of the Sanbagawa belt, Japan and South Island, New Zealand, Ca–Na pyroxene and glaucophane are not common; sodic amphiboles are restricted to crossite and riebeckite in composition and clinopyroxenes to acmite and sodic augite, and occur only in Fe2O3‐rich metabasites. The glaucophane component of Na‐amphibole systematically decreases from Ward Creek, New Caledonia, through Sanbagawa to New Zealand. This relation is consistent with estimated pressure decrease employing the geobarometer of Maruyama et al. (1986). Similarly, the decrease in tschermakite content and increase in NaM4 of Ca‐amphiboles from New Zealand, through Sanbagawa to New Caledonia is consistent with the geobarometry of Brown (1977b). Therefore, the difference in compositional trends of amphiboles can be used as a guide for P–T detail within the metamorphic facies series.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)371-395
    Number of pages25
    JournalJournal of Metamorphic Geology
    Volume5
    Issue number3
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - Jul 1987

    Keywords

    • Cazadero
    • Key‐words: actinolite
    • Ward Creek
    • crossite
    • geobarometry
    • glaucophane
    • riebeckite
    • winchite

    ASJC Scopus subject areas

    • Geology
    • Geochemistry and Petrology

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