Outcomes of vitrectomy combined with subretinal tissue plasminogen activator injection for submacular hemorrhage associated with polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy

Shuhei Kimura, Yuki Morizane, Mio Morizane Hosokawa, Yusuke Shiode, Shinichiro Doi, Mika Hosogi, Atsushi Fujiwara, Toshio Okanouchi, Yasushi Inoue, Fumio Shiraga

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Purpose: To examine the outcomes of vitrectomy with subretinal tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) injection and postoperative intravitreal antivascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) injection for submacular hemorrhage (SMH) associated with polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV). Study design: Retrospective, consecutive case series. Methods: Patients who underwent vitrectomy for SMH associated with PCV and who were followed up for at least 12 months were included. Surgery consisted of vitrectomy with subretinal tPA and air tamponade. Postoperative intravitreal anti-VEGF was administered pro re nata. The following were examined: best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) at baseline, at 1 month, and at the final visit; the percentage of patients requiring anti-VEGF postoperatively; and the number of injections administered. Results: This study included 23 eyes of 23 patients (21 men, 2 women) with a mean age of 72.5 ± 9.0 years. The mean duration from disease onset to surgery was 9.0 ± 6.6 days. The mean maximum SMH size was 5.8 ± 4.8 disc diameters. The mean follow-up period was 33 ± 14 months. The BCVA was significantly improved when compared with baseline 1 month after surgery and at the final visit. Postoperative anti-VEGF was required for 91% of the eyes. In eyes that underwent anti-VEGF therapy until the final visit, the mean injection number was 4.1/year. Conclusions: Vitrectomy with subretinal tPA and air tamponade improved visual acuity in patients with SMH associated with PCV. Postoperative intravitreal anti-VEGF injection maintained the improved BCVA throughout a mean period of 33 months.

Original languageEnglish
JournalJapanese Journal of Ophthalmology
Publication statusPublished - Jan 1 2019



  • Antivascular endothelial growth factor
  • Polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy
  • Submacular hemorrhage
  • Tissue plasminogen activator

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ophthalmology

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