Prognostic factors for Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) or class I histiocytosis may include: (1) the number of organs involved, (2) the severity of organ failure, and (3) the age of the patients. Complications such as hemophagocytic syndrome and thrombocytopenia also affect the prognosis [1-4]. In general, younger patients with widely disseminated disease and organ dysfunction have a high risk of mortality. In a series of 101 children with LCH , the overall survival rate was 79% at 1 year, 74% at 3 years, and 71% at 5 years; however, in patients with liver or spleen involvement, 1-year survival was 33% and 5-year survival was only 25%. In adult LCH , the probability of survival 5 years post diagnosis was 92.3% overall: 100% for patients with single-system disease, 87.8% for isolated pulmonary disease, and 91.7% for multisystem disease.
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