Acclimation from marine to dilute environments constitutes among the dramatic evolutionary transitions in the history of life. Such adaptations have evolved in multiple lineages, but studies of the blood/hemolymph homeostasis mechanisms are limited to those using evolutionarily advanced Deuterostome (chordates) and Ecdysozoa (crustaceans). Here, we examined hemolymph homeostasis in the advanced Lophotrochozoa/mollusc, the other unexplored taxa, and its possible regulation by the vasopressin/oxytocin superfamily peptides known to be implicated in fluid homeostasis in Chordata and Arthropoda. The hemolymph osmotic and ionic status in the euryhaline cephalopod (Octopus ocellatus) following transfer from 30-ppt normal seawater to 20 ppt salinity indicate hyperosmo- and hyperionoregulatory abilities for more than 1 week, as in crustaceans and teleost fish. While ventilation frequency decreased by 1 day, Na+/K+-ATPase activity, which has been generally implicated in ion transport, was induced in two of the eight posterior gills after 1 week. In addition, the octopuses were intravenously injected with 1 or 100 ng/g octopressin or cephalotocin, which are Octopus vasopressin/oxytocin orthologs. After 1 day, octopressin, but not cephalotocin, decreased the hemolymph osmolality and Ca concentrations, as well as urinary Na concentrations. These data provide evidence for possible parallel evolution in hyperionoregulatory mechanisms and coordination by conserved peptides.
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