There are three strategies for patients with coronary artery disease (CAD): medical therapy, coronary artery bypass graft (CABG), and percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). With the development of drug-eluting stents, PCI is now widely used as the firstline treatment around the world. The advantage of CABG over PCI, however, remains in patients with left main coronary artery disease, three-vessel disease, and diffuse CAD. PCI and CABG do not exist in isolation because relieving the symptoms of angina is not the goal of treatment of CAD. Secondary prevention with vigorous modification of risk factors should be initiated and maintained. Among coronary risk factors, diabetes mellitus (DM) remains the most important one to predict poor early and late outcomes even in patients undergoing complete revascularization with CABG. Lowering the blood glucose level is important, but strict glycemic control is not necessarily associated with further reduction of cardiovascular events. Modification of insulin resistance with pioglitazone and metformin, lipid-lowering therapy with a statin, lowering blood pressure to <130/80 mmHg, and antiplatelet therapy should be considered in individuals with DM. A major concern is suboptimal modifications of risk factors in patients with DM and CABG in the real world. We should bear in mind this treatment gap and provide medical therapy for patients who need it most.
- Coronary artery bypass graft
- Coronary artery disease
- Diabetes mellitus
- Percutaneous coronary intervention
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pulmonary and Respiratory Medicine
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine