Objective: Flare-up phenomena, such as an increase in prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and/or deterioration of symptoms, are observed in some patients undergoing gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist therapy. This study was carried out to determine the optimal time for starting the administration of flutamide to prevent flare-up phenomena. Patients and Methods: Twenty-six patients with prostate cancer and elevated serum levels of PSA were randomly assigned to 5 groups. Group A patients (n = 6) were treated with a subcutaneous injection of 3.75 mg leuprorelin acetate depot alone. Group B, C, D and E patients (5 patients in each group) were treated with 375 mg/day of orally administered flutamide combined with leuprorelin. Flutamide was initiated on the day of leuprorelin injection in group B, and at 1, 2 and 4 weeks before leuprorelin injection in groups C, D and E, respectively. Serum PSA and testosterone levels were measured in each patient. Results: Pretreatment with flutamide increased the serum testosterone level, but the testosterone surge after leuprorelin administration was almost the same in all 5 treatment groups. In patients who had been treated with flutamide in combination with leuprorelin, the mean PSA level did not exceed the pretreatment levels after leuprorelin administration. The rate of decrease in PSA in the group receiving simultaneous administration of flutamide with leuprorelin showed a decline comparable to that during the period before leuprorelin administration in the flutamide pretreatment groups. Conclusion: Simultaneous administration of flutamide with a GnRH agonist is sufficient to prevent flare-up phenomena.
- Gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist
- Prostate cancer
ASJC Scopus subject areas