Structures of spot-size converters that allow low loss and easy coupling between an optical semiconductor device and a fiber are proposed and designed theoretically. These spot-size converters have a tapered small core for expanding the mode feild. They also have a double cladding region which consists of an n+-doped InP substrate as the outer cladding and a p-doped or nondoped InP layer as the inner cladding with a ridge structure. This double cladding utilizes the plasma effect of a carrier which makes the refractive index of highly doped n-InP lower than that of p-doped or nondoped InP. The double-cladding structure can lightly confine an expanded mode field in the inner cladding, and results in low radiation loss at the tapered waveguide. In addition, this structure reforms the mode field shape into a Gaussian-like shape and achieves a low loss coupling of less than 1 dB with a large misalignment tolerance for fiber coupling. These spot-size converters are easily fabricated and applicable to all types of optical semiconductor devices.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics