Anti-VEGF treatments such as bevacizumab have demonstrated convincing therapeutic advantage in patients with glioblastoma. However, bevacizumab has also been reported to induce invasiveness of glioma. In this study, we examined the effects of rapid antiangiogenesis mediated by oncolytic virus (RAMBO), an oncolytic herpes simplex virus-1 expressing vasculostatin, on bevacizumab-induced glioma invasion. The effect of the combination of RAMBO and bevacizumab in vitro was assessed by cytotoxicity, migration, and invasion assays. For in vivo experiments, glioma cells were stereotactically inoculated into the brain of mice. RAMBO was intratumorally injected 7 days after tumor inoculation, and bevacizumab was administered intraperitoneally twice a week. RAMBO significantly decreased both the migration and invasion of glioma cells treated with bevacizumab. In mice treated with bevacizumab and RAMBO combination, the survival time was significantly longer and the depth of tumor invasion was significantly smaller than those treated with bevacizumab monotherapy. Interestingly, RAMBO decreased the expression of cysteine-rich protein 61 and phosphorylation of AKT, which were increased by bevacizumab. These results suggest that RAMBO suppresses bevacizumab- induced glioma invasion, which could be a promising approach to glioma therapy.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cancer Research