Observation of geo-neutrinos

G. Bellini, J. Benziger, S. Bonetti, M. Buizza Avanzini, B. Caccianiga, L. Cadonati, F. Calaprice, C. Carraro, A. Chavarria, F. Dalnoki-Veress, D. D'Angelo, S. Davini, H. de Kerret, A. Derbin, A. Etenko, G. Fiorentini, K. Fomenko, D. Franco, C. Galbiati, S. GazzanaC. Ghiano, M. Giammarchi, M. Goeger-Neff, A. Goretti, E. Guardincerri, S. Hardy, Aldo Ianni, Andrea Ianni, M. Joyce, V. V. Kobychev, Yusuke Koshio, G. Korga, D. Kryn, M. Laubenstein, M. Leung, T. Lewke, E. Litvinovich, B. Loer, P. Lombardi, L. Ludhova, I. Machulin, S. Manecki, W. Maneschg, G. Manuzio, Q. Meindl, E. Meroni, L. Miramonti, M. Misiaszek, D. Montanari, V. Muratova, L. Oberauer, M. Obolensky, F. Ortica, M. Pallavicini, L. Papp, L. Perasso, S. Perasso, A. Pocar, R. S. Raghavan, G. Ranucci, A. Razeto, A. Re, B. Ricci, P. Risso, A. Romani, D. Rountree, A. Sabelnikov, R. Saldanha, C. Salvo, S. Schönert, H. Simgen, M. Skorokhvatov, O. Smirnov, A. Sotnikov, S. Sukhotin, Y. Suvorov, R. Tartaglia, G. Testera, D. Vignaud, R. B. Vogelaar, F. von Feilitzsch, J. Winter, M. Wojcik, A. Wright, M. Wurm, J. Xu, O. Zaimidoroga, S. Zavatarelli, G. Zuzel

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

190 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Geo-neutrinos, electron anti-neutrinos produced in β decays of naturally occurring radioactive isotopes in the Earth, are a unique direct probe of our planet's interior. We report the first observation at more than 3σ C.L. of geo-neutrinos, performed with the Borexino detector at Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso. Anti-neutrinos are detected through the neutron inverse β decay reaction. With a 252.6 ton yr fiducial exposure after all selection cuts, we detected 9.9+4.1 -3.4(+14.6 -8.2) geo-neutrino events, with errors corresponding to a 68.3% (99.73%) C.L. From the ln L profile, the statistical significance of the Borexino geo-neutrino observation corresponds to a 99.997% C.L. Our measurement of the geo-neutrinos rate is 3.9+1.6 -1.3(+5.8 -3.2) events/(100 ton yr). The observed prompt positron spectrum above 2.6 MeV is compatible with that expected from European nuclear reactors (mean base line of approximately 1000 km). Our measurement of reactor anti-neutrinos excludes the non-oscillation hypothesis at 99.60% C.L. This measurement rejects the hypothesis of an active geo-reactor in the Earth's core with a power above 3 TW at 95% C.L.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)299-304
Number of pages6
JournalPhysics Letters, Section B: Nuclear, Elementary Particle and High-Energy Physics
Volume687
Issue number4-5
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Apr 19 2010
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

neutrinos
reactors
Earth core
nuclear reactors
decay
radioactive isotopes
planets
positrons
neutrons
probes
detectors
profiles
electrons

Keywords

  • Anti-neutrinos from reactors
  • Geo-neutrino
  • Neutrino detector

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Nuclear and High Energy Physics

Cite this

Bellini, G., Benziger, J., Bonetti, S., Avanzini, M. B., Caccianiga, B., Cadonati, L., ... Zuzel, G. (2010). Observation of geo-neutrinos. Physics Letters, Section B: Nuclear, Elementary Particle and High-Energy Physics, 687(4-5), 299-304. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.physletb.2010.03.051

Observation of geo-neutrinos. / Bellini, G.; Benziger, J.; Bonetti, S.; Avanzini, M. Buizza; Caccianiga, B.; Cadonati, L.; Calaprice, F.; Carraro, C.; Chavarria, A.; Dalnoki-Veress, F.; D'Angelo, D.; Davini, S.; de Kerret, H.; Derbin, A.; Etenko, A.; Fiorentini, G.; Fomenko, K.; Franco, D.; Galbiati, C.; Gazzana, S.; Ghiano, C.; Giammarchi, M.; Goeger-Neff, M.; Goretti, A.; Guardincerri, E.; Hardy, S.; Ianni, Aldo; Ianni, Andrea; Joyce, M.; Kobychev, V. V.; Koshio, Yusuke; Korga, G.; Kryn, D.; Laubenstein, M.; Leung, M.; Lewke, T.; Litvinovich, E.; Loer, B.; Lombardi, P.; Ludhova, L.; Machulin, I.; Manecki, S.; Maneschg, W.; Manuzio, G.; Meindl, Q.; Meroni, E.; Miramonti, L.; Misiaszek, M.; Montanari, D.; Muratova, V.; Oberauer, L.; Obolensky, M.; Ortica, F.; Pallavicini, M.; Papp, L.; Perasso, L.; Perasso, S.; Pocar, A.; Raghavan, R. S.; Ranucci, G.; Razeto, A.; Re, A.; Ricci, B.; Risso, P.; Romani, A.; Rountree, D.; Sabelnikov, A.; Saldanha, R.; Salvo, C.; Schönert, S.; Simgen, H.; Skorokhvatov, M.; Smirnov, O.; Sotnikov, A.; Sukhotin, S.; Suvorov, Y.; Tartaglia, R.; Testera, G.; Vignaud, D.; Vogelaar, R. B.; von Feilitzsch, F.; Winter, J.; Wojcik, M.; Wright, A.; Wurm, M.; Xu, J.; Zaimidoroga, O.; Zavatarelli, S.; Zuzel, G.

In: Physics Letters, Section B: Nuclear, Elementary Particle and High-Energy Physics, Vol. 687, No. 4-5, 19.04.2010, p. 299-304.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Bellini, G, Benziger, J, Bonetti, S, Avanzini, MB, Caccianiga, B, Cadonati, L, Calaprice, F, Carraro, C, Chavarria, A, Dalnoki-Veress, F, D'Angelo, D, Davini, S, de Kerret, H, Derbin, A, Etenko, A, Fiorentini, G, Fomenko, K, Franco, D, Galbiati, C, Gazzana, S, Ghiano, C, Giammarchi, M, Goeger-Neff, M, Goretti, A, Guardincerri, E, Hardy, S, Ianni, A, Ianni, A, Joyce, M, Kobychev, VV, Koshio, Y, Korga, G, Kryn, D, Laubenstein, M, Leung, M, Lewke, T, Litvinovich, E, Loer, B, Lombardi, P, Ludhova, L, Machulin, I, Manecki, S, Maneschg, W, Manuzio, G, Meindl, Q, Meroni, E, Miramonti, L, Misiaszek, M, Montanari, D, Muratova, V, Oberauer, L, Obolensky, M, Ortica, F, Pallavicini, M, Papp, L, Perasso, L, Perasso, S, Pocar, A, Raghavan, RS, Ranucci, G, Razeto, A, Re, A, Ricci, B, Risso, P, Romani, A, Rountree, D, Sabelnikov, A, Saldanha, R, Salvo, C, Schönert, S, Simgen, H, Skorokhvatov, M, Smirnov, O, Sotnikov, A, Sukhotin, S, Suvorov, Y, Tartaglia, R, Testera, G, Vignaud, D, Vogelaar, RB, von Feilitzsch, F, Winter, J, Wojcik, M, Wright, A, Wurm, M, Xu, J, Zaimidoroga, O, Zavatarelli, S & Zuzel, G 2010, 'Observation of geo-neutrinos', Physics Letters, Section B: Nuclear, Elementary Particle and High-Energy Physics, vol. 687, no. 4-5, pp. 299-304. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.physletb.2010.03.051
Bellini G, Benziger J, Bonetti S, Avanzini MB, Caccianiga B, Cadonati L et al. Observation of geo-neutrinos. Physics Letters, Section B: Nuclear, Elementary Particle and High-Energy Physics. 2010 Apr 19;687(4-5):299-304. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.physletb.2010.03.051
Bellini, G. ; Benziger, J. ; Bonetti, S. ; Avanzini, M. Buizza ; Caccianiga, B. ; Cadonati, L. ; Calaprice, F. ; Carraro, C. ; Chavarria, A. ; Dalnoki-Veress, F. ; D'Angelo, D. ; Davini, S. ; de Kerret, H. ; Derbin, A. ; Etenko, A. ; Fiorentini, G. ; Fomenko, K. ; Franco, D. ; Galbiati, C. ; Gazzana, S. ; Ghiano, C. ; Giammarchi, M. ; Goeger-Neff, M. ; Goretti, A. ; Guardincerri, E. ; Hardy, S. ; Ianni, Aldo ; Ianni, Andrea ; Joyce, M. ; Kobychev, V. V. ; Koshio, Yusuke ; Korga, G. ; Kryn, D. ; Laubenstein, M. ; Leung, M. ; Lewke, T. ; Litvinovich, E. ; Loer, B. ; Lombardi, P. ; Ludhova, L. ; Machulin, I. ; Manecki, S. ; Maneschg, W. ; Manuzio, G. ; Meindl, Q. ; Meroni, E. ; Miramonti, L. ; Misiaszek, M. ; Montanari, D. ; Muratova, V. ; Oberauer, L. ; Obolensky, M. ; Ortica, F. ; Pallavicini, M. ; Papp, L. ; Perasso, L. ; Perasso, S. ; Pocar, A. ; Raghavan, R. S. ; Ranucci, G. ; Razeto, A. ; Re, A. ; Ricci, B. ; Risso, P. ; Romani, A. ; Rountree, D. ; Sabelnikov, A. ; Saldanha, R. ; Salvo, C. ; Schönert, S. ; Simgen, H. ; Skorokhvatov, M. ; Smirnov, O. ; Sotnikov, A. ; Sukhotin, S. ; Suvorov, Y. ; Tartaglia, R. ; Testera, G. ; Vignaud, D. ; Vogelaar, R. B. ; von Feilitzsch, F. ; Winter, J. ; Wojcik, M. ; Wright, A. ; Wurm, M. ; Xu, J. ; Zaimidoroga, O. ; Zavatarelli, S. ; Zuzel, G. / Observation of geo-neutrinos. In: Physics Letters, Section B: Nuclear, Elementary Particle and High-Energy Physics. 2010 ; Vol. 687, No. 4-5. pp. 299-304.
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TY - JOUR

T1 - Observation of geo-neutrinos

AU - Bellini, G.

AU - Benziger, J.

AU - Bonetti, S.

AU - Avanzini, M. Buizza

AU - Caccianiga, B.

AU - Cadonati, L.

AU - Calaprice, F.

AU - Carraro, C.

AU - Chavarria, A.

AU - Dalnoki-Veress, F.

AU - D'Angelo, D.

AU - Davini, S.

AU - de Kerret, H.

AU - Derbin, A.

AU - Etenko, A.

AU - Fiorentini, G.

AU - Fomenko, K.

AU - Franco, D.

AU - Galbiati, C.

AU - Gazzana, S.

AU - Ghiano, C.

AU - Giammarchi, M.

AU - Goeger-Neff, M.

AU - Goretti, A.

AU - Guardincerri, E.

AU - Hardy, S.

AU - Ianni, Aldo

AU - Ianni, Andrea

AU - Joyce, M.

AU - Kobychev, V. V.

AU - Koshio, Yusuke

AU - Korga, G.

AU - Kryn, D.

AU - Laubenstein, M.

AU - Leung, M.

AU - Lewke, T.

AU - Litvinovich, E.

AU - Loer, B.

AU - Lombardi, P.

AU - Ludhova, L.

AU - Machulin, I.

AU - Manecki, S.

AU - Maneschg, W.

AU - Manuzio, G.

AU - Meindl, Q.

AU - Meroni, E.

AU - Miramonti, L.

AU - Misiaszek, M.

AU - Montanari, D.

AU - Muratova, V.

AU - Oberauer, L.

AU - Obolensky, M.

AU - Ortica, F.

AU - Pallavicini, M.

AU - Papp, L.

AU - Perasso, L.

AU - Perasso, S.

AU - Pocar, A.

AU - Raghavan, R. S.

AU - Ranucci, G.

AU - Razeto, A.

AU - Re, A.

AU - Ricci, B.

AU - Risso, P.

AU - Romani, A.

AU - Rountree, D.

AU - Sabelnikov, A.

AU - Saldanha, R.

AU - Salvo, C.

AU - Schönert, S.

AU - Simgen, H.

AU - Skorokhvatov, M.

AU - Smirnov, O.

AU - Sotnikov, A.

AU - Sukhotin, S.

AU - Suvorov, Y.

AU - Tartaglia, R.

AU - Testera, G.

AU - Vignaud, D.

AU - Vogelaar, R. B.

AU - von Feilitzsch, F.

AU - Winter, J.

AU - Wojcik, M.

AU - Wright, A.

AU - Wurm, M.

AU - Xu, J.

AU - Zaimidoroga, O.

AU - Zavatarelli, S.

AU - Zuzel, G.

PY - 2010/4/19

Y1 - 2010/4/19

N2 - Geo-neutrinos, electron anti-neutrinos produced in β decays of naturally occurring radioactive isotopes in the Earth, are a unique direct probe of our planet's interior. We report the first observation at more than 3σ C.L. of geo-neutrinos, performed with the Borexino detector at Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso. Anti-neutrinos are detected through the neutron inverse β decay reaction. With a 252.6 ton yr fiducial exposure after all selection cuts, we detected 9.9+4.1 -3.4(+14.6 -8.2) geo-neutrino events, with errors corresponding to a 68.3% (99.73%) C.L. From the ln L profile, the statistical significance of the Borexino geo-neutrino observation corresponds to a 99.997% C.L. Our measurement of the geo-neutrinos rate is 3.9+1.6 -1.3(+5.8 -3.2) events/(100 ton yr). The observed prompt positron spectrum above 2.6 MeV is compatible with that expected from European nuclear reactors (mean base line of approximately 1000 km). Our measurement of reactor anti-neutrinos excludes the non-oscillation hypothesis at 99.60% C.L. This measurement rejects the hypothesis of an active geo-reactor in the Earth's core with a power above 3 TW at 95% C.L.

AB - Geo-neutrinos, electron anti-neutrinos produced in β decays of naturally occurring radioactive isotopes in the Earth, are a unique direct probe of our planet's interior. We report the first observation at more than 3σ C.L. of geo-neutrinos, performed with the Borexino detector at Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso. Anti-neutrinos are detected through the neutron inverse β decay reaction. With a 252.6 ton yr fiducial exposure after all selection cuts, we detected 9.9+4.1 -3.4(+14.6 -8.2) geo-neutrino events, with errors corresponding to a 68.3% (99.73%) C.L. From the ln L profile, the statistical significance of the Borexino geo-neutrino observation corresponds to a 99.997% C.L. Our measurement of the geo-neutrinos rate is 3.9+1.6 -1.3(+5.8 -3.2) events/(100 ton yr). The observed prompt positron spectrum above 2.6 MeV is compatible with that expected from European nuclear reactors (mean base line of approximately 1000 km). Our measurement of reactor anti-neutrinos excludes the non-oscillation hypothesis at 99.60% C.L. This measurement rejects the hypothesis of an active geo-reactor in the Earth's core with a power above 3 TW at 95% C.L.

KW - Anti-neutrinos from reactors

KW - Geo-neutrino

KW - Neutrino detector

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