Foam stability is an important quality trait of beer. Our previous results of two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE) analyses of beer proteins implied a relationship between barley dimeric α-amylase inhibitor-1 (BDAI-1) and beer foam stability as judged by the NIBEM-T analyzer. To develop a novel prediction method of beer foam stability under different conditions of barley cultivar and malt modification, multiple linear regression analysis was applied. The spot intensities of major beer proteins on 2DE gel were quantified and used as explanatory variables. The foam stabilities of 25 beer samples each brewed from malt with different malt modification in one of the three cultivars (cultivars A, B, and C) were explained by the spot intensities of BDAI-1 at the 5% significance level (r = 0.421). Furthermore, two other major protein spots (b0 and b5) were observed on the 2DE gels of Japanese commercial beer samples with different foam stability. Then, multiple regression for foam stability was calculated using these three spot intensities as explanatory variables. As a result, 72.1% of the beer foam stability in 25 beer samples was explained by a novel multiple regression equation calculated using spot b0 and BDAI-1 as positive explanatory variables and spot b5 as a negative variable. To verify the validity of the multiple regression equation and the explanatory variables, the beer foam stability in practical beer samples was analyzed. As a result, 81.5% of the beer foam stability in 10 Japanese commercial beer samples was also explained by using spot b0 and BDAI-1 as positive explanatory variables and spot b5 as a negative variable. Mass spectrometry analyses followed by database searches revealed that protein spots b0 and b5 were identified as protein Z originated from barley and thioredoxin originated from yeast, respectively. These results confirm that BDAI-1 and protein Z are foam-positive factors and identify yeast thioredoxin as a possible novel foamnegative factor.
- Beer foam stability
- Multiple regression analysis
- Protein Z
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Agricultural and Biological Sciences(all)