Non-selective distribution of isomeric cholesterol hydroperoxides to microdomains in cell membranes and activation of matrix metalloproteinase activity in a model of dermal cells

Toshiyuki Nakamura, Ayako Noma, Sachiko Shimada, Nanase Ishii, Noriko Bando, Yoshichika Kawai, Junji Terao

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4 Citations (Scopus)


Cholesterol hydroperoxides (ChOOHs) are included as lipid peroxidation products in the skin exposed to ultraviolet (UV) light irradiation. They may exert physicochemical actions affecting biomembrane rigidity because cholesterol is one of the major components of cell membranes. We investigated the distribution of isomeric ChOOHs in heterogeneous cell membranes with different lipid profiles using mouse fibroblast NIH-3T3 cells as a model of the dermis. Before and after UVA irradiation in the presence of hematoporphyrin, cell membranes were partitioned to microdomains (lipid rafts and caveolae) containing a higher amount of cholesterol and non-microdomains (containing a lower amount of cholesterol) by ultracentrifugation. By a combination of diphenylpyrenylphosphine-thin-layer chromatography blotting analyses and gas chromatography-electron ionization-mass spectrometry/selected ion monitoring analyses, ChOOH isomers were determined as their trimethylsilyloxyl derivatives. Cholesterol 5α-, 7α- and 7β-hydroperoxide were found as isomeric ChOOHs before irradiation. The amounts of the three ChOOH isomers increased significantly after photoirradiation for 2 h. No difference was observed between microdomains and non-microdomains with regard to the ratio of the amounts of isomeric ChOOHs to that of cholesterol, suggesting that these ChOOH isomers were distributed equally in both parts depending on cholesterol content. When cells were treated with a purified mixture of ChOOH isomers, cell membranes incorporated ChOOHs into microdomains as well as non-microdomains evenly. Cellular matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) activity was elevated by treatment with the purified mixture of ChOOH isomers. These results strongly suggest that ChOOHs accumulate in cell membranes irrespective of the heterogeneous microstructure and promote MMP activity if dermal cells are exposed to photodynamic actions.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)17-23
Number of pages7
JournalChemistry and Physics of Lipids
Publication statusPublished - Jan 1 2013
Externally publishedYes



  • Cholesterol hydroperoxide
  • Lipid rafts
  • Matrix metalloproteinase
  • Microdomain
  • UVA irradiation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry
  • Molecular Biology
  • Organic Chemistry
  • Cell Biology

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