Nitrogen dioxide and acute respiratory tract infections in children in Indonesia

Made Ayu Hitapretiwi Suryadhi, Kawuli Abudureyimu, Saori Kashima, Takashi Yorifuji

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


We evaluated associations between air pollution (nitrogen dioxide [NO2] and sulfur dioxide [SO2]) and health in children aged 0–3 years in Indonesia. We included 4931 Indonesian children born between 2009 and 2011. We assigned participants provincial-levels of NO2 and SO2 and examined associations with low birth weight, infant death, neonatal death, and acute respiratory infection (ARI). We estimated odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) using a generalized estimating equations logistic regression model. NO2 exposure increased the risk for ARI. An interquartile range increase in mean NO2 exposure increased the risk for ARI by 18% (OR 1.18, 95% CI: 1.08–1.28), and was supported by quartile exposure category. SO2 was not associated with the examined child health outcomes. NO2 exposure increased the risk for respiratory infections in early childhood in Indonesia. AbbreviationsARI acute respiratory infectionCI confidence intervalGDRB Gross Domestic Regional BrutoGEE generalized estimating equationsIDHS Indonesian Demographic Health SurveyIQR interquartile rangeLBW low birth weightNO2 nitrogen dioxideOR odds ratioSO2 sulfur dioxide.

Original languageEnglish
JournalArchives of Environmental and Occupational Health
Publication statusPublished - Jan 1 2019


  • Acute respiratory infection
  • infant death
  • low birth weight (LBW)
  • neonatal death
  • nitrogen dioxide
  • sulfur dioxide

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Toxicology
  • Environmental Science(all)
  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
  • Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis

Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of 'Nitrogen dioxide and acute respiratory tract infections in children in Indonesia'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

  • Cite this