Semiconducting nanomaterials with 3D network structures exhibit various fascinating properties such as electrical conduction, high permeability, and large surface areas, which are beneficial for adsorption, separation, and sensing applications. However, research on these materials is substantially restricted by the limited trans-scalability of their structural design and tunability of electrical conductivity. To overcome this challenge, a pyrolyzed cellulose nanofiber paper (CNP) semiconductor with a 3D network structure is proposed. Its nano-micro-macro trans-scale structural design is achieved by a combination of iodine-mediated morphology-retaining pyrolysis with spatially controlled drying of a cellulose nanofiber dispersion and paper-crafting techniques, such as microembossing, origami, and kirigami. The electrical conduction of this semiconductor is widely and systematically tuned, via the temperature-controlled progressive pyrolysis of CNP, from insulating (1012 ω cm) to quasimetallic (10-2 ω cm), which considerably exceeds that attained in other previously reported nanomaterials with 3D networks. The pyrolyzed CNP semiconductor provides not only the tailorable functionality for applications ranging from water-vapor-selective sensors to enzymatic biofuel cell electrodes but also the designability of macroscopic device configurations for stretchable and wearable applications. This study provides a pathway to realize structurally and functionally designable semiconducting nanomaterials and all-nanocellulose semiconducting technology for diverse electronics.
- customized 3D network structures
- paper electronics
- trans-scale structural design
- tunable electrical property
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Materials Science(all)
- Physics and Astronomy(all)