NADH fluorescence imaging and the histological impact of cortical spreading depolarization during the acute phase of subarachnoid hemorrhage in rats

Tomohisa Shimizu, Tomohito Hishikawa, Shingo Nishihiro, Yukei Shinji, Yuji Takasugi, Jun Haruma, Masafumi Hiramatsu, Hirokazu Kawase, Sachiko Sato, Ryoichi Mizoue, Yoshimasa Takeda, Kenji Sugiu, Hiroshi Morimatsu, Isao Date

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Abstract

OBJECTIVE Although cortical spreading depolarization (CSD) has been observed during the early phase of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) in clinical settings, the pathogenicity of CSD is unclear. The aim of this study is to elucidate the effects of loss of membrane potential on neuronal damage during the acute phase of SAH. METHODS Twenty-four rats were subjected to SAH by the perforation method. The propagation of depolarization in the brain cortex was examined by using electrodes to monitor 2 direct-current (DC) potentials and obtaining NADH (reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide) fluorescence images while exposing the parietal-temporal cortex to ultraviolet light. Cerebral blood flow (CBF) was monitored in the vicinity of the lateral electrode. Twenty-four hours after onset of SAH, histological damage was evaluated at the DC potential recording sites. RESULTS Changes in DC potentials (n = 48 in total) were sorted into 3 types according to the appearance of ischemic depolarization in the entire hemisphere following induction of SAH. In Type 1 changes (n = 21), ischemic depolarization was not observed during a 1-hour observation period. In Type 2 changes (n = 13), the DC potential demonstrated ischemic depolarization on initiation of SAH and recovered 80% from the maximal DC deflection during a 1-hour observation period (33.3 ± 15.8 minutes). In Type 3 changes (n = 14), the DC potential displayed ischemic depolarization and did not recover during a 1-hour observation period. Histological evaluations at DC potential recording sites showed intact tissue at all sites in the Type 1 group, whereas in the Type 2 and Type 3 groups neuronal damage of varying severity was observed depending on the duration of ischemic depolarization. The duration of depolarization that causes injury to 50% of neurons (P50) was estimated to be 22.4 minutes (95% confdence intervals 17.0-30.3 minutes). CSD was observed in 3 rats at 6 sites in the Type 1 group 5.1 ± 2.2 minutes after initiation of SAH. On NADH?uorescence images CSD was initially observed in the anterior cortex∗it propagated through the entire hemisphere in the direction of the occipital cortex at a rate of 3 mm/minute, with repolarization in 2.3 ± 1.2 minutes. DC potential recording sites that had undergone CSD were found to have intact tissue 24 hours later. Compared with depolarization that caused 50% neuronal damage, the duration of CSD was too short to cause histological damage. CONCLUSIONS CSD was successfully visualized using NADH?uorescence. It propagated from the anterior to the posterior cortex along with an increase in CBF. The duration of depolarization in CSD (2.3 ± 1.2 minutes) was far shorter than that causing 50% neuronal damage (22.4 minutes) and was not associated with histological damage in the current experimental setting.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)137-143
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of neurosurgery
Volume128
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2018

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Keywords

  • Histological evaluation
  • Spreading depolarization
  • Subarachnoid hemorrhage
  • Vascular disorders

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery
  • Clinical Neurology

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