Orexin plays a key role in the regulation of sleep and wakefulness and in feeding behavior in the central nervous system, but its receptors are expressed in various peripheral tissues including endocrine tissues. In the present study, we elucidated the effects of orexin on pituitary gonadotropin regulation by focusing on the functional involvement of bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) and clock genes using mouse gonadotrope LβT2 cells that express orexin type 1 (OX1R) and type 2 (OX2R) receptors. Treatments with orexin A enhanced LHβ and FSHβ mRNA expression in a dose-dependent manner in the absence of GnRH, whereas orexin A in turn suppressed GnRH-induced gonadotropin expression in LβT2 cells. Orexin A downregulated GnRH receptor expression, while GnRH enhanced OX1R and OX2R mRNA expression. Treatments with orexin A as well as GnRH increased the mRNA levels of Bmal1 and Clock, which are oscillational regulators for gonadotropin expression. Of note, treatments with BMP-6 and -15 enhanced OX1R and OX2R mRNA expression with upregulation of clock gene expression. On the other hand, orexin A enhanced BMP receptor signaling of Smad1/5/9 phosphorylation through upregulation of ALK-2/BMPRII among the BMP receptors expressed in LβT2 cells. Collectively, the results indicate that orexin regulates gonadotropin expression via clock gene expression by mutually interacting with GnRH action and the pituitary BMP system in gonadotrope cells.
- bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Molecular Biology
- Computer Science Applications
- Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
- Organic Chemistry
- Inorganic Chemistry